Army Technologies

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This area involves the development and refinement of your Army and all you land combat units.

Prerequisite Techs always include the tech directly above it in this specific tech field and all four techs two levels back in the other Army tech fields. Level 1-technologies don't have prerequisites, level 2-techs only the level 1-tech from the same field. Exceptions and additional prerequisite techs from the same category are shown in bold, additional techs from other categories are shown in bold and italics.

If a technology itself is a prerequisite for a tech deviating from the above rule, it's called a "Key Technology" here. The more follow-up techs a certain technology has listed in this category, the more this technology can become a bottleneck for your research progress. (So it corresponds to the bold/ bold-italic techs, but with the tech tree viewed top-down instead of bottom-up like in the category "Prerequisite Techs".)

Army Doctrine

This is the doctrinal change of your army. New ideas of how to move and defend while increase the defense of your units, increase their speed, and give you the possibility to enhance your fortifications.

Post-Napoleonic Thought

This the slightly modified bank of knowledge derived from the Napoleonic Wars. The commander still lead his army dictatorial from his hill with binoculars in his hands.

Strategic Mobility

This doctrine meant that armies became far more movable using both preplanned marches and railroad. They also fought organized in a more effective way enabling the army to use tactical movement better.

Point Defense System

This doctrine meant that offensive and defensive centred upon certain fortresses which blocked lines of supply, movement and communications. It often meant a slight less mobile warfare fought in big theaters, but around a few keypoints.

Deep Defense System

This doctrine meant that defensive became more decisive than offensive. By using multiple lines of defense it became very hard for a attacker to break through the defenses. The cost for trying was immense.


This doctrine was a countermeasure to the stiff defensive lines that tended a whole war to be fought over a few soccer arenas of land. By using disguise and hidden reserves that poured into the gaps in the enemy line a breakthrough could be achieved. Speed was the key here and unfortently for the attackers of the age, armored vehicles, was still a few decade a head.

Modern Army Doctrine

With the rapid changes in technology, and the experiences of the powers in the Great War, many nations made operational changes to their base army doctrines to take in account these new inventions and experiences.

Light Armament

This is the development of the main side arms of your units. The applications will upgrade the combat values of your divisions. Better applications within this branch will increase the Fire attack value of your units.

Flintlock Rifles

These rifles were heavy and cumbersome to shot, reload and carry. They also used old black powder that gave away big clouds of smoke and hindered marksmanship. Further the bullet and the powder had to be loaded seperately in a painstaking set of regulated actions.

Muzzle-loaded Rifles

These rifles were much lighter and simply used than its predecessor. It used modern black powder and had bullet and fuse in two parts. It was still rather cumbersome to reload as it was loaded through the front of the barrel which meant that the soldier had to be standing when he reloaded.

  • Prerequisite Techs: Flintlock Rifles
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    R, Cav, Dra, H: Fire +1
    Inf, G: Fire +2
    Inf, R, G, Cav, Dra, H: Supply consumption +2%, +5%, +12%, +6%, +4%, +25%
  • Leads to Inventions:
  • Key Technology for: Iron Muzzle-loaded Artillery

Breech-loaded Rifles

The design of these rifles was similar to the elder version, but from the reloading system. These rifles was reloaded at the back of the barrel and the soldier could reload from any position. Still he could only reload one bullet at a time which hampered the rate of fire.

Machine Guns

By introducing Machine Guns at fixed positions the individual soldier got a powerful close support, which enabled him to advance or retreat with ease.

Bolt-action Rifles

These rifles were fitted with a magasin that made it possible to fire up to eight shots with only a single action. This decisively increased the rate of fire and brought great flexibility on the battlefield.

Modern Divisional Structure

Begining at the turn of the century, many nations started to move away from the older system of a regiment-based army. While previously the division had been more of an ad-hoc formation, the new philosophy was to make the division a standardized formation and the basis of the new army.

Heavy Armament

This is your heavy support as artillery pieces and mortars. The applications will upgrade the combat values of your artillery detachments. Those detachments will give your units an extra punch that will be formidable with the later applications.

Bronze Muzzle-loaded Artillery

These artillery pieces were made of bronze and easily worn out. They were also cumbersome to reload as they were frontloaded which often meant that the piece had to be moved between each shot.

  • Prerequisite Techs: Flintlock Rifles
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Activate unit: A
  • Leads to Inventions:

Iron Muzzle-loaded Artillery

These artillery pieces were made of iron and more reliable than the older pieces. They were as cumbersome as the older pieces to reload as they were frontloaded which often meant that the piece had to be moved between each shot.

Iron Breech-loaded Artillery

These artillery pieces were made of iron, but the first artilley pieces that were back loaded, much shorter reload time, and with a higher rate of fire.

Steel Breech-loaded Artillery

These artillery pieces were made out of steel and their strength and reliability gave them very high rates of fire as weel as short reload times.

Indirect Artillery Fire

With the introduction of longer barrels and effective signal systems the artillery pieces and their crews were no longer limited by their line of sight. Instead they could lay barrages far behind the enemies first line and stop them from sending reinforcements.

Heavy Armament

Advances in industrial technology and improvements in artillery design opened the way for a multitude of new artillery pieces to be made. Ranging from small 'mountain guns' to larger siege guns, these new artillery pieces gave a significnat amount of flexibility and fire power to field units.

Military Science

This is the scientific evolution of your army. Statistics, logistics and well layed plans became an important facett of war. New applications will increase the organization value of your units.

Military Staff System

The staff was to support the commander and make it easier for him to make decisions. It involved future planing, information briefings and producing suggestion for decisions.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Inf, Cav, Dra: MaxOrg +10%
    Inf, Irr, Cav, Dra: Supply consumption +2%, +1%, +6%, +4%
  • Leads to Inventions: Staff Command Support

Military Plans

The military plan was a prepared solution for a set of military problems. If solved the military objectives would be in friendly control. By planning attacks and defensives in advance a country got prepared units and leaders which could fight better and more coherently.

Military Statistics

By statistical measure, consumtion of material and men could be estimated in advance, thus plans for reinforcements, ammunition and hospitals bed etc could be laid in advance.

Military Logistics

By pressing the supply service deeper and deeper down the chain of of units, from the front platoon to the General Staff, a flow of needed supplies could flow like blood in the veins of the body of the army and thus enable it to wage war effectively.

Military Directionism

At certain point full control of both military and civilian production and decision-making might increase the efficiency of the war effort. Often the Army and the politicians lived by different measure of what was rational. With directionism the army leadership would decide what was rational.


With the first powered flight and the regular production and design of aircraft, military applications for the new technology were not at first apparent. Aeroplanes were first used as recon spotters for artillery and land units, which proved their worth. As the Great War progressed, new applications were discovered, from using planes to drop bombs, to using planes to attack other aircraft, such as Balloon Busters and the fabled Knights of the Air.

Army Leadership

This is the education and leadership principles used by your officer corps. Better leadership procedures will increase the organization and morale values of your units.

The Command Principle

The command principle designates a objective chain of command where seniority within the chain means absolute power over the subordinate within the same chain. In leadership under stress this is a necessity for getting anything done in a disciplined fashion.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Inf, Cav, Dra: MaxOrg +10%
    Inf, Cav, Dra: Supply consumption +2%, +6%, +4%
  • Leads to Inventions:

Army Professionalism

Earlier being an officer was much like having a title of nobility or a position at the court. Attending was enough. However with the the coming of professionalism you actually had to do something as a commisssioned officer. Being an officer now meant having a profession and a field of expertise where you could excel.

Army Decision Making

An important change in leadership was that the military academies started to educate the young officers in decision-making, and soon it spilled over to the regular army. It was the duty of any competent officer to take every opportunity to train at making decision. A cult was started - if you couldn't make decisions you where incompetent and unmanly.

Army Risk Management

By analysing risk in the decision-making process officers could remove the extrem choices from the set of possible solution to a military problem.

Army NCO Training

Earlier non-commissioned officers where rankers from the low social classes who by experience or just years in service got commanding power over other men. At this point you had to have a formal military education to get NCO rank. The NCOs became the backbone of the army and the leaders at the frontline units, the basic atom of war, the Platoon.

Great War Experience

The First World War is often referred to as the first industrial war. Rapid advances in technology produced many new weapons of mass devastation. The tactical use of machine guns, tanks, and gas warfare are just a few of the new advances that were used for the first time. Beyond these technological wonders, the failure of trench combat, the devastating effects of a prolonged war of attrition, and the end of horse cavalry all marked the changing of an era.

Unit Abbreviations

A (Artillery Brigade)
B (Barrel/ Tank Brigade)
C (Cuirassier Brigade)
Cav (Cavalry)
Dra (Dragoons)
E (Engineer Brigade)
G (Guard Brigade)
H (Hussar Brigade)
HQ (Headquarter Attachment)
Inf (Infantery)
Irr (Irregulars)
R (Regulars Brigade)