Commerce Technologies

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This area involves the development and refinement of your Economy and especially the efficiency of your budget investments.

Prerequisite Techs always include the tech directly above it in this specific tech field and all four techs two levels back in the other Army tech fields. Level 1-technologies don't have prerequisites, level 2-techs only the level 1-tech from the same field. Exceptions and additional prerequisite techs from the same category are shown in bold, additional techs from other categories are shown in bold and italics.

If a technology itself is a prerequisite for a tech deviating from the above rule, it's called a "Key Technology" here. The more follow-up techs a certain technology has listed in this category, the more this technology can become a bottleneck for your research progress. (So it corresponds to the bold/ bold-italic techs, but with the tech tree viewed top-down instead of bottom-up like in the category "Prerequisite Techs".)


Financial Institutions

Financial Institutions are organizations that improve the flow of financial assets in your country. The development goes from having not even private banks to instituting a bank inspection board.

Private Banks

These where private enterprises that earned money on lending and borrowing money. They were a keystone in the capital flow.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Tax efficiency: +1%
    Tariff efficiency: +1%
    Education costs: +3.5%
    Crime fighting costs: +3.5%
  • Leads to Inventions:
  • Key Technology for: Publishing Industry, Early Railroad

Stock Exchange

By introducing a specific set of rules to the market, and as an effect of business juristiction the stock exchange became the regulated place where shares in companies where bought and sold. This of could even further increase the flow of capital.

Business Banks

These enterprises could be either private or state-owned, but they earned money by supplying the market with financial assets and instruments.

Investment Banks

These enterprises could be either private or state-owned, but they earned money by supplying industrialists with money for new or expanded production.

Bank Inspection Board

This government agency was to regulate and police the financial market to remove market imperfections form this area of the economy. Its existence and functionality decreased the risk for bank crashes considerably.

Mutual Funds

With the rapid growth of the middle class that resulted from the shift towards industrial societies in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a desire to find sources of investment that would bring higher returns than traditional deposits in banks led to the development of companies that would allow smaller investors to pool their money together to invest in the stock and bond markets with the profits divided among the investors based on the size of their investment. First established in the United States in 1924 and slowly spreading around the industrial world thereafter, these mutual funds allowed a whole new level of investment in capital markets by individuals who traditionally did not possess sufficient resources to purchase securities on their own. The new mutual funds allowed for an injection of capital into security markets that would provide for a further expansion of industrial concerns in the economy as well as allow governments to use debt certificates as a means to raise capital for their own purposes, if so desired. It also exposed the risks of investment in securities markets to a much larger segment of society than previously.



Monetary System

A functional economy needs a working monetary system. It need a balanced money stock for the economic transactions to be done smoothly. Also a effective regulation of thiis is also needed.

No Standard

At this point there is no standard and very little actual possibility to regulate the money stock.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Tax efficiency: +1%
    Tariff efficiency: +1%
    Education costs: +3%
    Crime fighting costs: +3%
  • Leads to Inventions:

Ad-Hoc Money Bill Printing

At this point some rudimentary regulations exist. It will rarely be a too low money stock, but it can be too high.

Private Bank Money Bill Printing

By allowing private banks to print money the country receive a steady flow of money stock. However, if not checked and regulated the stock can run high rather uncontrolled.

Central Bank Money Bill Printing

By only allowing a Central Bank to print money the state have full control of the the printing of money bills and thus partly controls the money stock. Still, in and outflow of money from and to the country must be balanced the hard way whihc can destabilize the economy.

Modern Central Bank System

At this point the Central Bank also regulated the national interest and can thus no easily control the in and outflow of money from and to the country.

Market-Determined Exchange Rates

The adoption of the Gold Standard for currencies in the nineteenth century had been designed to create stable exchange rates that would encourage trade and investment across borders without the risk of fluctuations in currency values reducing values of the goods exchanged. The exigencies of warfare in the industrial era made the maintenance of the gold standard very difficult, as the debts incurred by various governments to pay for the war effort weakened the perceived value of currencies relative to gold. As a result, most nations would abandon the gold standard during eras of conflict to reduce the financial limitations of action the gold standard required, and permitted the value of currencies to be determined by market forces. However, most nations maintained their faith in the gold standard, and resolved to return to the gold standard once the immediate crisis of war was resolved.



Economic Thought and Critique

The scientific development of Economics gave large repercussions into the functions of the world economy, both on a micro and macro level. New ideas and knowledge was swiftly applied by business and the state to increase the efficiency of their work.

Early Classical Theory and Critique

This knowledge was centred around Adam Smiths view of the economy, and Malthus and Ricardos works on agriculture and population changes.

Late Classical Theory

This knowledge was based on earlier thought, but refined and expanded to the changing circumstances of the early industrialization.

Collectivist Theory

This knowledge was based upon a harsh analysis and critique of the capitalist mode of production. It also defined the future development of society either by peaceful reform or by radical proletarian revolution.

The Historical Theory

This knowledge was a fusion of economics and history. It underlined the importance of contextuality and gradual change to the economic system.

Neoclassical Theory

This knowledge was an advanced form of the classical theory, highly mathematical and centred around creating mathematical models of reality.

Keynesian Economics

A radical reappraisal regarding the relationship between demand and supply and the role of the State in the management of economic forces in an economy based on capitalism result from the theories of John Maynard Keynes and his supporters in the early and middle twentieth century. Rejecting the orthodox arguments that the State had a limited and essentially negative role in the working of economic forces, Keynesian economists maintained that the State plays an important role in maintaining and increasing economic growth through policies that help stimulate aggregate demand. In wake of the lessons gained from economic planning in times of war between industrial nations and increasingly disruptive cycles of expansion and contraction in the global economy, Keynesian economics would garner widespread, although not universal, support as the twentieth century evolved



Market Functionality

This area centres around the functionality of the market. It concerns both the number of actors on the market and the level of regulations to guide its performance.

Freedom of Trade

This meant that there where a legislation that decided under what circumstances it was legal or forbidden to run business. Earlier prohibition against some social groups to entertian in business where abolished.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Activate factory: Oil rig, Steel, Cement, Ammunition, Small arms, Artillery, Explosives, Canned food, Fabric, Regular clothes, Luxury clothes, Lumber mill, Paper mill, Furniture, Luxury furniture
    RGO production efficiency increased (different values for each RGO)
    Tax efficiency: +1%
    Tariff efficiency: +4%
    Education costs: +6%
    Crime fighting costs: +6%
  • Leads to Inventions:
  • Key Technology for: Experimental Railroad, Basic Chemistry

Market Structure

This meant that the basic legislation decided what type of market structure would be the outcome of the present regulations. The number of actors on the market was the most important structure and it could be many, few or even one in each business branch.

Business Regulations

At this point regulations where introduced to check the activity of individual enterprises.

Market Regulations

At this point regulations where introduced to check the activity on the market. This could be antitrust laws, financial regulations or banking laws.

Economic Responsibility

This meant changing the behaviour of owners and management boards to increase a higher safety level on the market. This would decrease the risk for bank and stock market crashes.

Government Interventionism

In the early twentieth century new ideologies developed that challenged the Liberal maxim that the economy performed best when the government was involved as little as possible. However, as the demands of warfare in the industrial era forced States to take a more active role in ensuring proper supplies to the forces on active duty, and the deepening integration of the global economy produced more extreme cycles of expansion and contraction, interest in a greater role for the State in the economy gained ground even among those who still accepted the basic principles of Liberalism. As the twentieth century progressed, the role of the State in economic affairs would expand to a degree scarcely conceivable in the nineteenth century



Organization

This area concerns the internal development of the firms. Internal production procedures and business styles changed over time and cooperated with the changes in economic science.

Guild-based Production

This was the oldstyle mode of production where individual specialists organised into an organisation of interest owned the legal right of production and ruled a sea of lesser workers.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects: none
  • Leads to Inventions:
  • Key Technology for: Collectivist Theory

Organized Factories

This was an important development as many workers was now placed under the same roof and worked together unisont. This also meant further specialization and divison of labour.

Scientific Management

This meant analysing production scientifically and optimizing output quality, inventory used, and of course what the workers were supposed to do.

Time-saving Measures

This meant analysing production scientifically and optimizing utilized time.

Management Strategy

This was politically forging an attitude or culture among the businessmen of the nation that was attuned with the existing legislation.

Organizational Development

As industrial concerns grew in size during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a new concern regarding how to maintain production efficiency in plants that would employ thousands of workers arose. Theories of Organizational Development began to be developed that offered solutions that could be implemented to maintain and improve worker efficiency.