Culture Inventions

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Complete list of all inventions linked to culture technologies (Victoria:Revolutions v2.01) Prerequisite inventions are shown in green.


Contents

Romanticist Literature

The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Expressing their emotional response to nature were, amongst others: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats.

  • ID: 400
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Romanticism
  • Years: 1850 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Romanticist Art

The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Great artists closely associated with Romanticism include J.M.W. Turner, Caspar David Friedrich, John Constable, and William Blake.

  • ID: 401
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Romanticism
  • Years: 1850 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Romanticist Music

The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Of the romanticist era a few composers stand out against the rest. Ludwig van Beethoven, Frederic Chopin and Franz Schubert were among those.

  • ID: 402
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Romanticism
  • Years: 1850 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Realist Literature

The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.

  • ID: 403
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Realism
  • Years: 1860 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Realist Art

The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.

  • ID: 404
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Realism
  • Years: 1860 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Realist Music

The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.

  • ID: 405
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Realism
  • Years: 1860 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Impressionist Literature

The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Litterary impressionism was manifested through mostly symbolic poetry, describing the world in vague, sometimes momentary words. Major writers were Paul Verlaine, Stéphane Mallarmé, and in america T.S. Eliot and James Joyce.

  • ID: 406
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Impressionism
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Impressionist Art

The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frederic Bazille were among those that defined the era and made some deep impressions in the history of art.

  • ID: 407
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Impressionism
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Impressionist Music

The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Claude Debussy was considered the ancestor of musical impressionism, but others like Maurice Ravel, Frederick Delius and Ottorino Respighi were major players in this revolt against the romantic ideals that had dominated music for so long.

  • ID: 408
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Impressionism
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Expressionist Literature

The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within.

  • ID: 409
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Expressionism
  • Years: 1899 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Expressionist Art

The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within. The most important expressionist group was the German school, which included painters Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, and Otto Müller.

  • ID: 410
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Expressionism
  • Years: 1899 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Expressionist Music

The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within. Music went through a dramatic change during the Expressionist movement. No longer were songs ruled by melody and continuity. Three major expressionist composers are Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Paul Hindemith.

  • ID: 411
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Expressionism
  • Years: 1899 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Avantgarde Literature

Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.

  • ID: 412
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Avantgarde Art

Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.

  • ID: 413
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Avantgarde Music

Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.

  • ID: 414
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Neokantian Idealism

Kants transcendental idealism had meant that the world can only be understood through categories, or ideal concepts that are immanent in us, and empirically. This is sometimes called weak empiricism. The neokantian idealist, however, departed very far from Kant and more or less went back to a more classical idealism though interpreted in a kantian language referring to categories in their analyses of the world.

  • ID: 415
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Idealism
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Hegelian Idealism

As neokantian thinkers fought over the best way to intepret the knowledge Kant had developed, Hegel a rare breed among philosophers delivered his own version of idealist philosophy. Its main tenants was the philosophical view that the mind or spirit constitutes the fundamental reality which drow history onwards in a semi-deterministic fashion. His influence can not be underestimated, among his disciples was the young Karl Marx who further developed this type of idealism though into a different direction.

  • ID: 416
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Idealism
  • Years: 1850 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Proto-Existentialism

This was not a philosophical movement but disparate philosophers analyzing and discussing concepts and conceptions which they considered flawed. The general notion about things as Intuition, Time, Intellect, and Being had to be reformulated not do create pseudoproblems.

  • ID: 417
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Idealism
  • Years: 1850 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Pragmatism

Pragmatism is perhaps the only peculiarly American school of philosophy. The name denotes a concern for the practical, taking human action and its consequences as the basic measure of truth, value, etc. This translates to experimentation not merely as a method of scientific investigation but as the primary way humans engage each other and the world around them.

  • ID: 418
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Empiricism
  • Years: 1860 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Empiricism

In its strong form, it is the thesis that there is no reality behind appearances. A weaker form of empiricism admits of the existence of a reality which is, however, trans-empirical. The transcendent nature of reality determines that we can have no knowledge of it and thus must simply catalog the formal relations between appearances.

  • ID: 419
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Empiricism
  • Years: 1860 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Analytic Philosophy

This was originally a disparate movement of philosophers who wanted to free logics and the foundation of mathematics from elder disfunct and inconsistent thesis. It later developed into trying to bridge language and formal logics and thus create a objective realist ground for reality. This took a sidepath into logical positivism. However the objectivist position crashed as one of its early protegés Ludwig Wittgenstein took a 90 degree turn and tried to refute his own earlier position.

  • ID: 420
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Analytic Philosophy
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Modern Logics

Many of those philosophers belonging in some sense to the area of Analytic Philosophy were also those who revolutionized logics. Others where famous mathematicians who as they delved into the fundaments of mathematics developed ideas that were as important for logics as mathematics.

  • ID: 421
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Analytic Philosophy
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Logical Positivism

Logical positivists denied the soundness of metaphysics and traditional philosophy. They asserted that many philosophical problems are indeed meaningless, primarily concerned with the logical analysis of scientific knowledge. They though failed to secure what they themselves considered to be the sound foundation of knowledge and is today most often considered a dead-end.

  • ID: 422
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Analytic Philosophy
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Philosophy of Language

This is the study of philosophical questions about language, especially about meaning and truth of words, phrases, and sentences in general. It doesn't ask what particular words mean, or whether particular sentences are true. Except of course for words and sentences about the language. Rather, it asks what meaning and truth in general are. It was developed out of Wittgensteins critique of his own earlier work Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, and to some extent the whole analytic tradition.

  • ID: 423
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Analytic Philosophy
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Phenomenology

Phenomenology was the view that something 'is' in relation to how it is experienced, its causes, its purposes and its grounds. It is neither correctly described as either realism or idealism, but to some degree refutes both.

  • ID: 424
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Phenomenology & Hermeneutic
  • Years: 1895 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Existentialism

Existentialism have many mothers. In one way it could be interpreted as a radical individualism traced from Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, but it is more. But it also the notion of the given as not really given but only meaningful through the process of interpretation something that it got from Husserl and more indirectly from Bretano. However it was take further by Heidegger and later Sartre, Beauvoir, and Camus, and became focused on what give meaning to the person , where the person should be understood more like a being that is free to make action and thus create her own meaning than the old cartesian self.

  • ID: 425
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Anti-Rationalism
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics is either a side-branch, or an evolution of Phenomenology, and stands for a interpretionist view of reality, but its belonging is more clearer associated with idealism than realism.

  • ID: 426
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Phenomenology & Hermeneutic
  • Years: 1895 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Darwinism

Darwinism is a theory that says that natural selection operates on variations in older species to produce offspring that can be called new species, and that this explains the appearance of all species.

  • ID: 427
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Biologism
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Clerks: +25% research points
    Clergymen: -25% research points

Social-darwinism

Social darwinism is a theory in sociology that says that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority.

  • ID: 428
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Biologism
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Rate of migration to Colonies: +5%

Sociology

Sociology is the science of society, social institutions and social relationship. It attempts to recreate the effect of certain actions on societies.

  • ID: 429
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Social Science
  • Years: 1895 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Social reform cost modifier: -7%

Social-psychology

Social Psychology is the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another.

  • ID: 430
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Social Science
  • Years: 1895 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Social reform cost modifier: -3%
    Political reform cost modifier: -3%

Political Science

Political Science is the study of government of states and other political units. Theoretically, it is applicable to any political ententity.

  • ID: 431
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Social Science
  • Years: 1895 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Political reform cost modifier: -7%

Social Anthropology

Social Anthropology is the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings.

  • ID: 432
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Social Science
  • Years: 1895 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige from Colonies: +10%
    Militancy of minorities in colonies decreases over time

Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is the view that authority is the most important value which give balance and stability to it. It is often combined with traditionalism to give an epistemological foundation for who should wield this authority.

  • ID: 433
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government conservative OR reactionary
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: -5
    Aristocrats, Officers, Clergymen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Conservative

Hierarchical Order

Hierarchical Order is a system were several components or levels are dependent on the respective higher one. The components get smaller the higher they are.

  • ID: 434
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government conservative OR reactionary
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: -5
    Aristocrats, Officers, Clergymen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Conservative

Traditionalism

Traditionalism is the doctrine that all knowledge is transmitted through the common sense of the people, and that this knowledge that the people bear should be the foundation of society. It fiercely rejects rationalism which it view as a hazardous and counterproductive view of societal transformation.

  • ID: 435
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government conservative OR reactionary
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: -5
    Aristocrats, Officers, Clergymen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Conservative

Political Religion

Political Religion is the doctrine that ties religion and political means together. Knowledge is often viewed as divinely given, and religious truth cannot be disapproved.

  • ID: 436
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government conservative OR reactionary
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: -5
    Aristocrats, Officers, Clergymen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Conservative

Paternalism

Paternalism is the attitude of a person or a government that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good.

  • ID: 437
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government conservative OR reactionary
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: -5
    Aristocrats, Officers, Clergymen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Conservative

Constitutionalism

Constitutionalism is a constitutional system of government, usually with a written constitution. It advocates that all actions taken by the government must be in accordance with constitutional principles.

  • ID: 438
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government liberal OR anarcho-liberal
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Capitalists, Clerks, Craftsmen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Liberal

Individualism

Individualism is the belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence. This doctrine also states that the government should not interfere in commercial affairs.

  • ID: 439
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government liberal OR anarcho-liberal
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Capitalists, Clerks, Craftsmen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Liberal

Rationalism

Rationalism is the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth. This doctrine states that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience.

  • ID: 440
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government liberal OR anarcho-liberal
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Capitalists, Clerks, Craftsmen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Liberal

Secularization

Secularization is the activity of changing something like art or education so it is no longer under the control or influence of religion. This doctrine also proposes the transfer of property from ecclesiastical to civil possession.

  • ID: 441
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government liberal OR anarcho-liberal
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Capitalists, Clerks, Craftsmen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Liberal

Social Conscience

Social Conscience is motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a societies as well as individuals thoughts and actions.

  • ID: 442
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government liberal OR anarcho-liberal
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Capitalists, Clerks, Craftsmen: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Liberal

Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism is the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political, economic and social equality.

  • ID: 443
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government socialist OR communist
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Soldiers, Farmers, Labourers: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Socialist

Collectivism

Collectivism is a political theory that the people should own all the means of production.

  • ID: 444
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government socialist OR communist
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Soldiers, Farmers, Labourers: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Socialist

Determinism

Determinism is a philosophical doctrine holding that all events are inevitable consequences of sufficient causes. This is often understood as denying the possibility of free will.

  • ID: 445
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government socialist OR communist
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Soldiers, Farmers, Labourers: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Socialist

Atheism

Atheism is the doctrine or belief that there is no God. People sharing this belief often resort to different means to compensate for the lack of a 'higher figure'.

  • ID: 446
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government socialist OR communist
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Soldiers, Farmers, Labourers: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Socialist

Social Justice

Social justice is about preventing human rights abuses and ensuring adherence to international law.

  • ID: 447
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Ideological Thought, Government socialist OR communist
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Soldiers, Farmers, Labourers: CON +1
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Socialist

Populism vs Establishment

For gaining power, the would-be politician would usually try to obtain the support of people already well-established in the elite. It was the easiest road for climbing the power ladder, but a minority of them, mostly coming from a more liberal bourgeoisie, bet instead on the support from the uneducated masses, excluded from the political scene.

  • ID: 448
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: State & Government
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects of Choice A (Populism):
    POP's votes mainly based on dominant issues
  • Effects of Choice B (Establishment):
    POP's votes mainly based on ideology

Clericalism vs Anticlericalism

The elites had, for centuries, allied with the clergy for maintaining social order by the belief in God and His church. A spread of the ideas inherited from the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution boosted, both among the liberals and the socialists, the thought that both the State and society had to be freed from the yoke of religion.

  • ID: 449
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: State & Government
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects of Choice A (Clericalism):
    Dominant issue for 25% of POPs: Moralism
    Events enabled/ Event chances increased: ...
  • Effects of Choice B (Anti-clericalism):
    Dominant issue for 25% of POPs: Atheism
    Events enabled/ Event chances increased: ...

Bureaucracy vs Nepotism

Civil services, always seeking maximum effeciency, progressively tried to free themselves from political control. They began to set their own sets of regulations and hire their own staff. In other countries, however, civil servants were chosen among political supporters and allies. By use of patronage the administration was thus kept into line.

  • ID: 450
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: State & Government
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects of Choice A (Bureaucracy):
    Events enabled/ Event chances increased: ...
  • Effects of Choice B (Nepotism):
    Events enabled/ Event chances increased: ...

Meritocracy vs Aristocracy

Birth and blood had always been an unbearable limit for the ambitions of the bourgeoisie. For them, logically, men with talents and merits should be promoted. However, the privileges of the old aristocracy keep the commoners into inferior stratas, as only nobility of birth and tradition would be the sole determinent of the fittest of men.

  • ID: 451
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: State & Government, Government NOT socialist
  • Years: 1836 - 1920
  • Effects of Choice A (Meritocracy):
    Events enabled/ Event chances increased: ...
  • Effects of Choice B (Aristocracy):
    Events enabled/ Event chances increased: ...

National Fraternity

The cohesion of nations is not always built over the spilt blood of other nations. It is also built by the belief that the people inside a territorial entity are like brothers, sharing common goals, ties, and symbols. The discovery of a common past and similarities in culture ensure that the people still wishes to live together inside one nation, even against external threat.

  • ID: 452
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Liberal, Anarcho-Liberal, Socialist, Communist: MIL -2
    Liberal, Anarcho-Liberal, Socialist, Communist: CON +2

Biased Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism means the acceptation that many cultures may cohabit equally inside a political entity. However, some cultures are more equal than others. While members of some cultures may be welcome with open arms, others are, on the other hand, either considered 'persona non grata', expelled or even encouraged to leave the country.

  • ID: 453
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism, nation has cultural minorities
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Minority emigration rate: +10%

Manifest Destiny

The doctrine of 'Manifest Destiny' appeared first in the United States in the 1840s to justify the its' need to expand westward. Already in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine had forbidden America to European colonization. The United States had a new duty to reach its continental boundaries and expand its civilization all over the continent. The basic idea was that the nation was destined to greatness and expansion.

  • ID: 454
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism, party policy is 'jingoism'
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Max colonial life rating: -0.10
    Prestige from Defense Spending: +10%
    Inf, Cav, Dra, Irr, PDN, DN, PC, MO, IC, MW, CL, FR, Raider, SS, C.Trans, S.Trans, : MaxMorale +3%
    Inf, Cav, Dra, Irr: Supply consumption +2%, +6%, +4%, +1%

Expansionism

An expansionist country seeks to expand its territory, influence, or power over a territory, population, or political entity by any means deemed necessary, ultimately by use of armed force. At it threatens peace and stability, neighboring states and great powers rarely let a country expand by force without responding to the threat.

  • ID: 455
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism, party policy is 'jingoism'
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Gain three random neighbouring provinces as national cores
    Intellectual Establishment changed to Army-industrial
    Dominant issue for 40% of POPs: Jingoism

Mission to Civilize

This was the idea that what was defined as the uncivilized world needed to be civilized and that its inhabitants was like children who needed to be enlightened by a fair but harsh hand. This was the ideology that lead and justified the colonialization and occupation done by the Great Powers.

  • ID: 456
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Prestige from Colonies: +10%
    Rate of migration to Colonies: +5%

Separatism

The idea of national sovereignity and the view that a people was a distinct group based on blood and language with certain rights evolved during the century and at several spots these ethnic groups started to work for independence.

  • ID: 457
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism, nation has cultural minorities
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Minorities are now much more militant.

National Trauma

When a population have been told that it is indefeatable for years, and it suddenly it loses a war, it can trigger a National Trauma. It means that to much psychological energy is spent at trying to understand why the country was lost and whom should be judged responsible. Sometimes this can trigger revanschism though.

  • ID: 458
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism, 50% or more national provinces occupied by enemies
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Losing wars will now greatly increase population militancy.

Revanchism

After having lost an important war against a main competitor many population groups will call for revenge and a new war to cleanse the dirt from the honor of the Nation.

  • ID: 459
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Nationalism & Imperialism, 5% or more national provinces owned by other countries
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Attacking Great Powers that occupy our national territory now incurs a lesser loss of prestige.

Dogma of Violence

At certain point a line of thought that developed from general radicalism was the dogma of violence, which meant that only by the forced means of violence could the old society be removed and the new one created.

Dogma of Mass Action

At certain point a line of thought that developed from general radicalism was the dogma of mass action, which meant that only by means of mass actions as rallying and strikes could the consciousness level of the worker be raised adequately for him to understand what to be good for him.

Terrorism

By the use of random violence the public would get to know the evil face of the police state and its blind justice swinging back at the innocents.

  • ID: 462
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Revolution & Counterrevolution, Government conservative OR liberal
  • Years: 1849 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Activate Crime Type: Terrorist cells

General Strikes

At this time political goals was achievable by General Strikes or even by the threat of the same.

  • ID: 463
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Revolution & Counterrevolution, Trade unions policy NOT 'all'
  • Years: 1880 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Trade Unions: 'all'
    Public Meetings: 'yes'

Secret Police

This special department of the Police was instituted to get at political groups disrespecting the current order. For people in general this could be understood either as a fair and good institution or an evil repressive face of power.

  • ID: 464
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Revolution & Counterrevolution, Voting rights NOT 'universal suffrage'
  • Years: 1895 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Crime fighting efficiency: +10%

Women's Suffrage Movement

This protest movement had as its aim to raise the subjugated position of women as well as giving them voting rights. They used passive resistance, protests and marches. The violence used against them was abhorred in many circles and eventually women won the day. Still there will be many more fights that have to be won...

  • ID: 465
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Revolution & Counterrevolution, Voting rights 'universal suffrage', election campaign, party policy is 'full citizenship', nation is civilized
  • Years: 1870 - 1920
  • Effects:
    Artillery-, Small Arms-, Ammunition Factory: Production modifier +25%

Rhetoric of Hate

This was a certain brand of public speaking which incited hate and the urge to do violence against a certain group in society. Most governments tried to forbid and stop such activities, but at some points they were unable to.

Nostalgic Romanticism

This was a general cultural thema where the glory of the past was raised to nigh-on-divine status. As equality and plurality were ideas of the future, Nostalgic Romaticism, quickly became a reactionary movement raising the goblet for absolute monarchy and the church of the fathers.

Anti-Egalitarianism

This view is based on the theory of natural justice, which says that how people are born can never be injust. Justice is completely relational. The effect is that the view that actions must be made to increase eequality is wrong, if such action is not correcting a legal error.

Surrealism

Evolving from the iconoclasm of the Dada movement, Surrealism sought via its works to engage the public into a voyage of discovery of the inner workings of the mind, where they felt true reality lay in a world increasingly corrupted by incessant materialism and the horrors of modern warfare. Though the term was coined by Andre Breton, its most famous proponent within the world of painting would be the flamboyant Salvador Dali.

  • ID: 469
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Modern Design

With the rise of modern industrial practices and the increasing availability of new materials for construction purposes, a new school of architecture and design would evolve in the early twentieth century that would mark a radical break with the definitions of style of the past. Following upon the dictum “Form Follows Function,” a new focus in architechture and design based around clean lines, verticality and a deliberate lack of orientation would come to the fore in the work of architects such as Louis Henri Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, Walter Gropius and Le Courboisier and in schools of design such as the Bauhaus.

  • ID: 470
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Jazz

Originating in the fusion of Western musical tradition with elements of traditional African music, Jazz evolved out of the nightclubs of New Orleans in the southern United States in the early twentieth century. Its blend of frentic, intoxicating rhythms, powerful melodies which encouraged improvisation by performers to add their own distinctive touches to each performance, and energetic vocals would hit upon the world just as new technologies to spread new music, such as the phonograph record, radio and sound cinema, provided a platform to showcase it to a worldwide audience. In the 1920s it became one of the dominant forms of popular music in the world, though many of the traditional arbitrers of taste frowned upon its popularity as further proof that society was rebelling against proper authority.

  • ID: 471
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Socialist Realism

The growing split between elite and popular forms of cultural production in the early twentieth century would merge with the rise of new anti-liberal political ideologies to result in a backlash against the cultural avant-garde by the growing power of the State in the name of ‘the people.” In both fascist and communist regimes, a new artistic ethos would develop that eoncouraged production that the masses could not only understand, but encourage the installation of the values that these regimes wished to instill upon the societies they governed. For the cultural elite, a stark choice was offered, either accept the limits of creativity imposed by the State in one’s work, or face the retribution of the State for challenging its authority. In communist regimes this new artistic ethos came to be known as Socialist Realism, but fascist regimes had their own analogous stylistic ethos which was imposed from above.

  • ID: 472
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Nihilism and The Will

The foundations for the trend away from the emphasis on human rationality in philosophy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries would be established with a revival in the interest among some philosophers in nihilism, the rejection of the idea that the life of the individual has any meaning or purpose in the grand workings of the universe. In place of the self-value of the individual as a being, focus was placed on The Will, the human ability to intervene in a situation to his own benefit. Developed most effectively in the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche in the late nineteenth century, the dramatic impact of warfare in the industrial era would lead to further refinement of the concept by philosophers such as Martin Heidegger in the early twentieth century. In its denial of the value of absolutes as guides for the conduct of human behavior, Nihilism would help contribute to the further questioning, and for many the ultimate rejection, of the values and beliefs that had shaped the Victorian world, while the emphasis on Will would encourage action to challenge accepted practices and encourage the construction of new values.

  • ID: 473
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Anti-Rationalism
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Futurism

As the questioning of the values and structures of the Victorian era gained momentum in intellectual circles in the early twentieth century, some intellectuals began to aruge that a clean break with the past was needed in order to build a brilliant new future that the rise of industrial civilization had promised. Beginning as a movement within the arts that embraced new materials and stylistic techniques that attempted to capture the essence of material power and speed, Futurism would soon spread as an idea to challenge conventional structures of society and call for their replacement with a new social, political and economic order that embraced the reality of industrial society.

  • ID: 474
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Anti-Rationalism
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

Quantum Theory

The dramatic expansion of scientific knowledge in the nineteenth century would lead to a questioning of the rational model of the basic structures of the universe that had culminated in the work of Isaac Newton in the late seventeenth century. As scientific equipment became more precise, discrepancies in the models of atomic behavior as understood in the nineteenth century resulted in further research into the nature of atomic particles and their interaction with forces such as energy. As a result of the work of physicists such as Albert Einstein and Walter Heisenberg, the idea that the basic structures of the universe could be known with precision by humans was shown to be incorrect, and an alternative view that there were elements of unpredictability in the structure and behavior of atomic particles would be proposed. While a major step forward in human understanding of the basic structures of matter, the emphasis of the random nature of some elements of the natural world further shook the Victorian faith in the ability of humanity to understand fully the natural world and reinforced the sense that the world was indeed not built upon completely rational behavior and assumptions.

  • ID: 475
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Anti-Rationalism
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

The Revolt Of The Masses

The move towards the establishment of universal suffrage as the basis for determining the balance of political power in society led to an increased sense of hope that with democracy the issues and concerns of The People would finally be addressed. The resulting factionalism caused by the growth of political parties in wake of universal suffrage soon exposed the limitations of liberal democracy as a system for the arbitration of power in society (especially in times of social, economic or political crisis) and led to a great deal of disenchantment with the ideals of democracy as the best system of governance and a search for potential alternatives to more effectively achieve the promises of a better life for all. Written in 1930 by the Spanish intellectual Jose Ortega y Gasset, “The Revolt Of The Masses” warns of the potential threat to the ideal of liberal democracy in its current limitations and the potential for the masses to overwhelm the political system and replace it with alternatives that in the end would destroy the basic principles of classic liberal democracy unless liberal democracy was able to reform itself to meet the challenges produced by mass politics.

  • ID: 476
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Social Alienation
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Ideology for 5% of POPs: Liberal

Vangaurd Party

As the Socialist movement grew in influence in some industrial nations, in other societies that were less industrialized the idea that the working class could lead an overthrow of the State and seize power was realized to be limited. Coined by the Russian socialist Vladimir Lenin in 1902, the concept of the vanguard party was that a small group of dedicated revolutionaries could lead the struggle for revolution in the name of the masses who lacked the ability or desire to carry out revolution themselves and, having achieved power in their name, establish control over the State and carry out the transformations necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of the socialist movement, the worker’s utopia. While most influential within Leftist political circles in the early twentieth century, the concept of an ideological vanguard seizing power on behalf of groups in society as a whole would also be influential on the Right as ultranantionalist movements began to move towards a more concrete ideological system, Fascism.

The Doctrine Of Fascism

The spread of revolutionary Communism in the early twentieth century as a potential alternative model to Liberal Capitalism as the basis of the organization of society would lead to the development of new models on the political Right that sought to offer a third alternative that would replace the weaknesses inherent in Liberal Capitalist systems without promoting a social revolution that would dispossess the power and status of the upper and middle classes. By the early 1920s such a model would crystallize in the evolution of Fascism. Although less rigorously defined in terms of ideological content than Communism, Fascism at its base called for the reorganization of The State for the benefit of The Nation as a whole, so that all who are definted as members of the national community, regardless of socioeconomic class, receive the benefits of modern industrial society. This would be achieved by subsuming the desires and concerns of the individual to the needs of the Nation under the leadership of a single party that would govern according to the needs of the Nation as a whole and prepare the Nation to compete successfully with other nations for power and influence in the world. Fully elaborated in the writings of the Italian Giovanni Gentile in the early 1930s, Fascism as an alternative to both Liberal Capitalism and Communism would grow rapidly in the early twentieth century.

  • ID: 478
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Politics
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Rebel spawn rate for fascist: +100%

Paramilitary Groups

As a result of the huge manpower requirements of militaries in an age of industrial warfare, the restoration of peace often resulted in the creation of large numbers of veterans, many of whom found it difficult to adjust to a return to civilian life and who possessed basic military training that could be put to use if needed. With the growth of revolutionary movements on the Left and particularly on the Right, the potential use of disgruntled military veterans for the purpose of challenging the actions and influence of ideological opponents grew rapidly. Their existence and growth in times of political, social and economic upheaval proved challenging to the ability of many States to maintain law and order, and the activities of such paramilitaries were often cited by those opposed to Liberal Capitalism of the inherent weakness of democracy in the face of revolutionary challenges that threatened the social order.

  • ID: 479
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Politics
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Rebel spawn rate for fascist: +100%

Colonial Nationalism

The rapid spread of Western political dominaton across the planet in the late nineteenth century would lead to the development of new political, economic and social realities in those regions that were subjected to colonial rule. The spread of Western political ideals based around Liberal democracy as a result of the expansion of educational opportunities along Western lines within colonial societies would combine with the often negative experience of colonial populations involved in the massive efforts resulting from the nature of warfare among industrialized nations to lead to the rise of nationalist movements in colonial societies in the first part of the twentieth centuries. Questioning the claims of cultural superiority by the West in wake of the destruction inflicted upon its own societies in the era of industrial warfare, colonial intellectuals called for an end to the direct ‘tutelage” of imperial regimes over colonized peoples and the restoration of the political independence that most colonial societies previously exercised over their own affairs and development.

  • ID: 480
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Politics
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • (Effects): (At the moment, the event is deactivated!)
    (none defined)

The Police State

Why is it you only see a policeman when you don't need one?

  • ID: 481
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Mass Politics, Voting rights 'none'
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    (none)

Mass Advertising

The rapid spread of basic functional literacy in industrial societies combined with the improvements in communication technologies to lay the basis for the development of new approaches to the promotion of creating demand for the rapidly increasing output of goods by increasingly efficient industrial systems. Drawing upon increased understanding of the nature of human compulsions shaped by the environment around them, advertisers would also learn lessons gained by States in their propaganda efforts during periods of war to rally the population to support the goals of the nation in its conflict. The result would be a rapid expansion of the use of simple, direct means of advertising to popularize new products and increase the appeal and demand for established products would become permanent features of popular culture as the twentieth century evolved, and would eventually come to impact other realms of public life, including politics.

  • ID: 482
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Behaviorism
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Plurality: +5
    Liberal: MIL -2

National Radio Networks

As the twentieth century evolved the role of wireless communication pioneered in the development of radio by Guglielmo Marconi would rapidly increase as technological changes improved the clarity and quality of radio transmissions. By the early 1920s the improvements would result in the development of a whole new medium of information exchange as radio frequencies could be used to transmit content deisnged to entertain, inform, or convince. Realizing the potential power of this new medium, states began to regulate the assigning of radio frequencies, with some establishing national monopolies while others allowed for the development of commercial broadcasting networks. By the early 1930s the radio set would become one of the most desired consumer goods, and its potential use to not only entertain but develop and shape public opinion would soon be seized upon by politicians and those who aspired to political power.

  • ID: 483
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Behaviorism
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Conservative, Liberal, Socialist: MIL -1
    Activate factory: Radio factory

The Talkies

The development of the cinema in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century would result in the creation of a new mass cultural activity that would soon become one of the hallmarks of the era. The power and influence of the cinema would be further enhanced when in the 1920s technological improvements allowed for the ability of sounds to be synchronized with the moving images so that not just the visual representation of a scene could be represented on screen, but its aural component as well. “The Jazz Singer,” released in the United States in 1927, was the first sound motion picture, and within half a decade the silent movie had become a relic of the past, and a new, powerful medium had entered the public sphere, forever changing not only popular culture, but the nature of politics and international relations as well.

  • ID: 484
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Behaviorism
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Prestige: Gain depends on how many other nations have already had this invention

The Decline Of The West and The Lost Generation

The combination of the dramatic social, economic and political transformations undertaken in the nineteenth century with the rise of industry and the devastation produced by mass warfare in the industrial age created a crisis of confidence among many intellectuals that the whole structure of society was under siege and in danger of complete collapse. Oswald Spengler began work on “The Decline Of The West” in 1911 as the challenges of new social, political and economic forces were shaking advanded industrial societies to their cores, with Spengler concluding that what these societies were experiencing was part of the natural cycle of civilizations that rise, have a period of brilliance, and eventually decline and collapse – a direct challenge to the Vicotrian idea that modern industrial society could continually be improved as a result of humanity’s rational abilities. Coined by American author Gertrude Stein, “The Lost Generation” captured the sense of loss and emptiness that many veterans of Great War felt after surviving the carnage of the battlefields and questioning the values and beliefs that had encouraged their nations to participate in the conflicts in the first place. These themes of decline and loss that Spengler and Woolf developed would dominate the cultural landscape in the early twentieth century.

  • ID: 485
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Social Alienation
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Plurality: -10
    Ideology for 2.5% of POPs: Communist
    Ideology for 2.5% of POPs: Fascist



Unit Abbreviations

A (Artillery Brigade)
B (Barrel/ Tank Brigade)
BB1 (Advanced Battleship)
BB2 (Modern Battleship)
BC1 (Battlecruiser)
BC2 (Advanced Battlecruiser)
C (Cuirassier Brigade)
C.Trans (Clipper Transport)
CA1 (Advanced Cruiser)
CA2 (Modern Cruiser)
Cav (Cavalry)
CC (Corvettes; 'Brigade')
CL (Light Cruiser)
CV1 (Experimental Carrier)
CV2 (Converted-Hulk Carrier)
CV3 (Purpose-Built Carrier)
DD (Destroyers; 'Brigade')
DN (Dreadnought)
Dra (Dragoons)
E (Engineer Brigade)
FR (Frigate)
FTR (Fighter Squadron; 'Brigade')
G (Guard Brigade)
H (Hussar Brigade)
HQ (Headquarter Attachment)
IC (Ironclad)
Inf (Infantery)
Irr (Irregulars)
ML (Minelayers; 'Brigade')
MO (Monitor)
MS (Minesweepers; 'Brigade')
MW (Man-o-War)
PC (Protected Cruiser)
PDN (Pre-Dreadnought Battleship)
R (Regulars Brigade)
Raider (Commerce Raider)
S.Trans (Steamer Transport)
SS (Submarines)
TAC (Bomber Squadron; 'Brigade')
TB (Torpedo Boats; 'Brigade')