Culture Technologies

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This area involves the development and refinement of your Culture. Applications give Prestige in proportion to when you get them. However, there is little prestige for the late-comer. They also give you societal bonus for reforms and your population management.

Prerequisite Techs always include the tech directly above it in this specific tech field and all four techs two levels back in the other Army tech fields. Level 1-technologies don't have prerequisites, level 2-techs only the level 1-tech from the same field. Exceptions and additional prerequisite techs from the same category are shown in bold, additional techs from other categories are shown in bold and italics.

If a technology itself is a prerequisite for a tech deviating from the above rule, it's called a "Key Technology" here. The more follow-up techs a certain technology has listed in this category, the more this technology can become a bottleneck for your research progress. (So it corresponds to the bold/ bold-italic techs, but with the tech tree viewed top-down instead of bottom-up like in the category "Prerequisite Techs".)


Aesthetics

This area involves the development and refinements in Literature, Art and Music.

Classicism & Early Romaticism

This was the 'ism' of earlier days where the clean and ascetic lines of elder days was expressed in rigourous ways. Also the seed of change came about with the early romanticism which took the first modest steps towards a new view of aesthetics.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Prestige: +2%
  • Leads to Inventions:

Romanticism

This was the 'ism' where the artist tried to capture the reality not as an abstract ideal, but more esoteric and alive. It soon overloaded and exploded in a reaction.

Realism

This was the 'ism' where the artist tried to capture the reality not as an esoteric daydream, but as it was in itself as if the artist was a neutral bystanders depicting the facts of life.

Impressionism

This was the 'ism' where the artist tried to capture the reality not from the perspective of a neutral bystander, but as a human in the world capturing the impressions of reality emmanating from the world itself.

Expressionism

This was the 'ism' where the artist tried to capture the reality not as impressions of reality emmanating from the world itself, but as the expressions from a human, a being inseperatable from the world itself.

Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde

The spread of expressionism among the cultural elite of society would result in the early twentieth century in a growing split between a vanguard of cultural producers, whose works often were uncomprehensible and scorned by the masses, and a new mass culture often derided by intellectuals and aesthetes as crude and banal but for the vast majority brought entertainment and enjoyment in the routine of life.



Philosophy

This area is the development of thoughts in general. Specifically though it is the change view of the human being and its consciosness, it is also a discussion concerning the metaquestion of what we can know anything about. However, the areas that Philosophy undertakes is so big it could be called 'a forthgoing discussion about everything'.

Late Enlightenment Philosophy

This is basically the empiricism of David Hume and the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, which both where reactions against older versions of idealism. It was also interesting to see that the new mode of thinking did no longer prerequisite the existance of God.

  • Prerequisite Techs: none
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Prestige: +2%
  • Leads to Inventions:

Idealism

This was the philosophical view that the mind or spirit constitutes the fundamental reality, has taken several distinct but related forms. However, this broad tradition is too vast to think of as a unitary movement.

Empiricism

In its strong form, it is the thesis that there is no reality behind appearances. A weaker form of empiricism admits of the existence of a reality which is, however, trans-empirical. The transcendent nature of reality determines that we can have no knowledge of it and thus must simply catalog the formal relations between appearances.

Analytic Philosophy

This was originally a disparate movement of philosophers who wanted to free logics and the foundation of mathematics from elder disfunct and inconsistent thesis. It later developed into trying to bridge language and formal logics and thus create a objective realist ground for reality. This took a sidepath into logical positivism. However the objectivist position crashed as one of its early protegés Ludwig Wittgenstein took a 90 degree turn and tried to refute his own earlier position.

Phenomenology & Hermeneutic

Phenomenology was the view that something 'is' in relation to how it is experienced, its causes, its purposes and its grounds. It is neither correctly described as either realism or idealism, but to some degree refutes both. Hermeneutics is either a side branch or an evolution of Phenomenology and stands for a interpretionist view of reality, but its belonging is more clearer associated with idealism than realism.

Anti-Rationalism

By the late nineteenth century, many philosophers began to openly question many of the assumptions regarding the rational nature of humans that had been the guiding line of understanding human nature dating back to the Enlightenment and reaching its fruition in Postivism. Never a single, unified movement, the tone of this school of thought emphasized the role of human emotion and human action as the primary force in determining human behavior ,and that the emphasis on rationality stultified the ability of humans to reach their full potential. Combined with changes in science, technology, politics and social structures, this rejection of human rationalism would contribute to a major questioning of all the assumptions and values that had dominated life for much of the Victorian era and presaged a new, more turbulent era for humanity ahead.



Social Thought

This area covers the developments in the social sciences and in much influences how the fabric of your society is organized.

Malthusian Thought

This was the knowledge of population structures and of statistical aggregates derived from historical studies. It helped to create a bank of knowledge explaining and forecasting migration, population expansion, and the aging of population cohorts.

Positivism

This was a program for social science prescribing that society was lawdriven as the natural sciences and that finding those laws mattered. It also prescribed that there was genuine objective knowledge to be found in the world about the world.

  • Prerequisite Techs: Malthusian Thought
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Education modifier: +10%
  • Leads to Inventions:

Functionalism

This was the theory that explained social structure and even the whole society as effects of interoperating functions.

Biologism

This was an evolution of functionalism where the whole was given a explanation borrowed from biology where society could be seen as an ant colony and where the societal survival was the inherent goal and everything else behaviours and functions that ensured this.

Social Science

These were the social sciences as they grew into being after the objectivistic ambitions was disapproved by strong philosophical arguements. These were contextual, sometimes bordering relativism but not always, and they actually contributed to the knowledge of society and its inhabitants.

Social Alienation

The transformation of society created by the development of industrial economic systems led to a dramatic weakening of the structures that had boundsociety together and resulted in the creation of new agglomerations of people who often had little in common with each other. The breakdown of traditional social structures, combined with the increasingly routine nature of the jobs of industrial workers and dominant ethos of individualism characteristic of the Victorian era would produce a growing sense among some of “not belonging” in society. The carnage of war in the industrial era, with the randomness of survival accentuated by new and improved technologies of war, further strengthened this sense of isolation among some, and in the 1920s this sense of alienation would become a major current in both popular and elite cultural production.



Political Thought

This area covers the developments in political science and influence the political system of your country and change the attitudes of your population.

Enlightenment Thought

This was the refined and enhanced views of men like Hume, Locke, Montesquie, Rosseau, and Burke. Their works founded the basic ideas that converted into traditionalism-radicalism and the triangular ideological frame of Conservatism-Liberalism-Socialism.

Ideological Thought

This is the parts and atoms of the more basic ideologies and which was refined and used in the political battle of arguments.

State & Government

This was the area of knowledge concerned with how the state and the government would work. What principles should guide it and by what morale.

Nationalism & Imperialism

This was the developed views of the Nation in a political context. Often it was mixed with religious thesis of cultural uniqueness and superiority. Also old 17th century ideal as Glory and Honor was mixed into this soup that had a nice and yet a ugly face to it.

Revolution & Counterrevolution

At this point radicalism and reactionism had developed from political theory into into practise. This meant political doctrines of terror and violence, but also mass actions, strikes and civil disobidience.

Mass Politics

By the early twentieth century the expansion of the right to vote, or the increasing demands that such rights be granted in those societies that had not yet expanded the basis of political power, combined with new technologies of transportation and communication to create a new political reality in industrial societies – mass politics. The further development of political parties to compete for the support of voters in order to have a say in the governance of society radically transformed the nature of how politics would be conducted, because the interests and concerns of the voters who supported the parties now had to be factored into the equations of debate and deal-making. For those groups in society that had traditionally enjoyed access to power and policy formation without regard to input from “the man on the street”, the evolution of politics in the early twentieth century was seen as a grave threat to the traditional ordering of society



Psychology

This area covers the developments in psychology. It changed not only mankinds view of itself but also created systematic knowledge in behaviour especially on a macrolevel.

Introspectionism

This was the first modern approaches to psychology where the knowledge was find by look into oneself and searching and trying to define consciousness and understand behaviour derived from it.

  • Prerequisite Techs:
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Prestige: +2%
    Revolt risk: -1
  • Leads to Inventions:

Associationism

This was the view that all consciousness is the result of the combination, in accordance with the law of association, of certain simple and ultimate elements derived from sense experience.

  • Prerequisite Techs: Introspectionism
  • Year: 1836
  • Effects:
    Prestige: +2%
    Revolt risk: -1
  • Leads to Inventions:

Phenomenalism

This was the monistic view that all empirical statements (such as the laws of physics) can be placed in a one-to-one correspondence with statements about only the phenomenal (i.e. mental appearances). Thus that our mental appearances directly corresponded to the world we view.

Experimental Psychology

This was the scientific method of understanding the psyche of man by experiment in controlled situations. In a later age this method would be strengthened and change name to behaviourism.

Psychoanalysis

This was the method of treating mental disorders as neurosis but as time went by it developed into a more general psychotheraphy that was used to treat most mental disorders.

Behaviorism

Not all researchers in psychology accepted the model of human action developed by Freud in the late nineteenth century based upon the interaction of the id, ego and superego in the individual. By the early twentieth century some researchers, such as JB Watson, began to argue that the impact of outside stimuli and influences was as important determinant of the development of human psychological behavior as internal considerations. Termed Behaviorism, the approach would be further elaborated in the work of BF Skinner and underlay important understandings regarding the behavior of humans as part of larger groups and their interaction in society.