State and Government (and Other Politically Important Techs) Explained

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State and Government (and Other Politically Important Techs) Explained

Most techs in the game are reasonably easy to understand, and offer you effects and inventions that are unambiguously beneficial. Even when you don’t understand the effects fully, it’s mostly a case of technology = “good”. But then you run headlong into an iceberg known as State & Government. What the hell does it do? Well, the idea of this guide is to explain that.

But there are a few related things that need explaining also. Before you deal with the iceberg of State & Government there is an underlying current, which players often feel the effects of without fully realising its power, known as Ideological Thought. And even after navigating these two there are a couple of potentially difficult passages ahead, marked on the map as Nationalism & Imperialism, and Revolution & Counterrevolution.

Together these techs comprise the effectual part of the Political Thought branch of the Culture tech tree (the other Political Thought tech, Enlightenment Thought, is just a navigation marker). Additionally, there is one other culture tech, Biologism, which though not from the Political Thought branch also has an effect on the course of your ship of state. Novice players tend not to fully appreciate the importance of these techs. Their effects are often subtle, and touch on almost every aspect of the game, but most importantly give you a rare chance to have an influence on the political life of your nation.

The aim of this guide is to help you successfully navigate these techs and to use them to your best advantage politically (and otherwise).

Note: If you are playing Victoria: Revolutions, this is an excellent guide; however, it does not detail the new cultural technologies in Revolutions. For information on them, see The Impact of Cultural and Economic Technologies on Politics in Victoria: Revolutions.

Knowledge Prerequisites

Firstly, I should point out that this guide is not designed for brand new players of Vicky. Before you can fully comprehend the effects of the Political Thought techs you need to know a lot of other things about the game. Here are what I would consider to be reasonable prerequisites to allow you to fully benefit from this guide:

  1. Preferably you have played two or more games through to completion.
  2. You have a working knowledge of the political system in the game and how it interacts with your POPs, especially:
    1. A working knowledge of the The Big Three chapter of Memnon’s manual and the Plurality FAQ.
    2. Have a working knowledge of the different government types and their effects (see the Governments and How to Change Them).
    3. Are used to using the Population Overview page of the ledger (p6) and the Politics and Population menus of the main interface, and understand the importance of all of the information presented there.
    4. Have a working knowledge of the impacts of the various election events.
  3. Have a working knowledge of crime and its effects.
  4. Understand the various ways in which prestige is gained and lost in the game.
  5. Understand the effect of changes to factory and RGO efficiencies.
  6. Are aware of the effect of the bonus due to capitalists, and of the tax efficiencies for each of the classes.
  7. Understand the effect of the different POP types on Research Point (RP) gain (see the Research point generation).
  8. Generally understand all of the systems in the game: political, economic, military, social, colonial.

Layout of the Guide

The guide will describe in detail each of the Political Thought techs in sequential order as well as the Biologism tech, explaining the immediate and long term impacts of each of their inventions (and associated random events, where applicable) and how best to utilise them to obtain the best result in your game. The earliest year that these techs and inventions can be attained is listed in brackets next to the heading for each tech / invention (where two dates are given the second one is for VIP). The immediate effects of each invention are listed as dot points directly below the invention name. Any differences between vanilla Vicky and VIP are pointed out and discussed. Some of the information in this guide can be found in the Techtionary, but the guide is presented in a manner that makes it unnecessary to have to refer back to the Techtionary.

It should be noted that none of the Political Thought techs have any direct effects themselves (other than opening up the possibility of researching other techs): the effects are all in the inventions that they fire (and the random events they make possible). Biologism has one direct effect, in addition to its inventions.

Helpful Hint: How to Check Whether an Invention has Fired

It can be important in the game to know whether or not an invention has fired yet. The way to check is to open the Technology menu on the main interface and locate and click on the invention’s parent tech, via the appropriate tech tree button (eg. Culture). Each of the tech’s inventions will be listed in a box titled “Effects”. Those that haven’t fired yet will have a dash (-) in front of them; those that have fired will have an asterisk (*) in front of them.

Enlightenment Thought – T4301 (1836)

This tech is really just a place marker. It has neither direct effects nor inventions associated with it. It allows you to research six other techs (nine in VIP), in particular opening up most (in VIP almost all) of the Culture techs. Usually, civilised countries already have this tech at the beginning of the game, whereas uncivilised countries don’t (but do have more important things to worry about first).

The Tech Tree Ahead

Enlightenment Thought is a prerequisite for the following techs:
Early Classical Theory and Critique – T3201 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Romanticism – T4002 (1836/1840) in VIP only
Realism – T4003 (1836/1850) in vanilla & VIP
Idealism – T4102 (1836) in VIP only
Empiricism – T4103 (1836/1855) in vanilla & VIP
Functionalism – T4203 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Ideological thought – T4302 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Introspectionism – T4401 (1836) in VIP only
Phenomenalism – T4403 (1836) in vanilla & VIP

Ideological Thought – T4302 (1836)

The first Political Thought tech of significance, Ideological Thought, has 15 inventions associated with it each of which is dependent on the ideology of your ruling party to fire. The inventions effectively work in three groups of five inventions each: a conservative / reactionary group, a liberal / anarcho-liberal group, and a socialist / communist group (refer to the list of the inventions below). Once you have Ideological Thought the five inventions in one of the three groups will fire depending on the ideology of your current ruling party. It will usually take between a few months and a year for all five inventions in the group to fire. If your ruling party changes (to one of an ideology associated with a different group of these inventions) before all five have fired you can have a situation where, for example, two inventions only from the first group fire followed then by the five inventions in the new group.

It’s important to note that these 15 inventions can only fire once each during the game.

The Conservative / Reactionary Group of Ideological Thought Inventions These inventions will only fire when you have a conservative or reactionary party in power
Authoritarianism – I433 (1836)
Hierarchical Order - I434 (1836)
Traditionalism - I435 (1836)
Political Religion - I436 (1836)
Paternalism - I437 (1836)

Each of these inventions has the following effects:

  • Change plurality by -5%
  • Modify consciousness for aristocrats by 1
  • Modify consciousness for officers by 1
  • Modify consciousness for clergymen by 1
  • Set ideology for 5% of POPs to conservative

The Liberal / Anarcho-liberal Group of Ideological Thought Inventions These inventions will only fire when you have a liberal or anarcho-liberal party in power
Constitutionalism - I438 (1836)
Individualism - I439 (1836)
Rationalism - I440 (1836)
Secularization - I441 (1836)
Social Conscience - I442 (1836)

Each of these inventions has the following effects:

  • Change plurality by 5%
  • Modify consciousness for capitalists by 1
  • Modify consciousness for clerks by 1
  • Modify consciousness for craftsmen by 1
  • Set ideology for 5% of POPs to liberal

The Socialist / Communist Group of Ideological Thought Inventions These inventions will only fire when you have a socialist or communist party in power
Egalitarianism - I443 (1836)
Collectivism - I444 (1836)
Determinism - I445 (1836)
Atheism - I446 (1836)
Social Justice - I447 (1836)

Each of these inventions has the following effects:

  • Change plurality by 5%
  • Modify consciousness for soldiers by 1
  • Modify consciousness for farmers by 1
  • Modify consciousness for labourers by 1
  • Set ideology for 5% of POPs to socialist

The Effects of Ideological Thought

The effects of the Ideological Thought inventions are substantially more far-reaching than it looks at first glance.

Firstly, how you manage your ruling parties in the game will determine which of these inventions will fire, and when. You can prevent the inventions in any one of the groups from ever firing if you never have a ruling party in power of the matching ideology (e.g. if you never have a socialist or communist party in power during the game none of the Egalitarianism, Collectivism, Determinism, Atheism, and Social Justice inventions will ever fire). You can get the inventions in more than one of these groups to fire if, after gaining Ideological Thought, you get successive ruling parties into power with differing ideologies (e.g. a liberal party and then later a socialist party). In fact, depending on what you do in the game you can have as few as five (i.e. one group only) or as many as all 15 (or any number in between) of these inventions fire during the course of your game. It is the combined effects of whatever number of these inventions that do fire that is important.

Secondly, an important result of the Ideological Thought inventions is that if you have a conservative, liberal or socialist party in power when the inventions fire, in the short term they will help cement your current ruling party in power and also reduce some of your POPs’ militancy (since the combined effect of each group of inventions is to set 25% of your POPs to the same ideology as your current conservative, liberal or socialist ruling party).

However, the most important effect of the Ideological Thought inventions is the change in plurality. The combined effect of the conservative / reactionary group of inventions is a reduction in plurality of 25%; for each of the other two groups it is an increase in plurality of 25%. This can have very big effects, particularly on the militancy of your POPs. As a result, which of these inventions you want to have fire (and which you want to prevent from firing), and when you want them to fire, will depend very much on your Government Type.

How to Gain the Maximum Benefit from Ideological Thought

For a monarchy or presidential dictatorship plurality increases militancy, so the conservative / reactionary group of inventions here are an absolute godsend, reducing plurality by 25% in total (indeed, the only other way in the game to reduce plurality - and only by 5% - is to choose Aristocracy in the State & Government choices: see the State & Government section below).

You will want to have the inventions in the conservative / reactionary group fire, and prevent any of the others from firing: this will mean having (and keeping) a conservative or reactionary ruling party in power and preventing at all costs a liberal / anarcho-liberal / socialist / communist ruling party from ever coming to power (or at least for as long as you remain a monarchy / presidential dictatorship). In a monarchy or a presidential dictatorship this is almost always guaranteed to be the case anyway. The exceptions are the small number of monarchies that have a two-party or multi-party system, where if you enact any level of voting rights other than none a liberal / anarcho-liberal / socialist / communist could come to power in an election (if such a party is currently available); Uruguay which starts with an anarcho-liberal ruling party in vanilla; and the Piratini Republic which starts with a liberal ruling party in VIP.

As a monarchy or presidential dictatorship the timing of when you research Ideological Thought is vital. Because you will want to benefit from the full effect of the 25% plurality reduction of the inventions in the conservative / reactionary group and because plurality cannot stay below zero (it will be set back to zero at the end of the month should it go negative), it is clear that you do not want to gain Ideological Thought until your plurality has at least reached 25%. An exception is if you plan on becoming a democracy or constitutional monarchy at a later date, where it can be an advantage to get the conservative / reactionary group of inventions to fire early in the game when your plurality is very low (see the notes below for these government types for an elaboration).

For a proletarian dictatorship plurality increases militancy, but you will always have a communist party in power which means the socialist / communist group of inventions will fire, increasing your plurality by 25% in total. This will be bad news for the militancy of your POPs, and aside from delaying Ideological Thought for as long as possible there is only one thing you can do to prevent or ameliorate the effects of this unwelcome outcome: enact the necessary political reforms to change your government type to a democracy. Otherwise, enacting lots of social reforms will be the order of the day.

For a democracy plurality decreases militancy, so you will benefit most from having the inventions in the liberal / anarcho-liberal or socialist / communist groups fire (or even better, both groups, if for example you can get a liberal party and then later a socialist party into power), whilst preventing the inventions in the conservative / reactionary group from firing. Therefore you will want to research Ideological Thought at the earliest point at which you can manage to get a liberal / anarcho-liberal / socialist / communist party into power, and once you have it you will want to prevent a conservative / reactionary party from getting into power ever again.

One tactic that can be useful to employ if you are planning on becoming a democracy at some point during the game is to research Ideological Thought early, while you still have very low plurality and have a conservative ruling party (this is almost always the case if you have begun the game as a monarchy or presidential dictatorship). In this instance because plurality can’t stay below zero, instead of losing 25% plurality you will only lose the small amount of plurality you already have, but importantly will ensure that the conservative / reactionary group of inventions can never fire again (since they can only fire once) even if you have a conservative or reactionary party come to power at some future point in the game. Later, when you get a liberal / anarcho-liberal / socialist / communist ruling party into power the plurality increasing inventions will fire and the total effect will be: Plurality Gain = Nx5% - P, where P = your plurality at the time when the conservative / reactionary group of inventions fired (i.e. the lower, the better), and N = the total number of the liberal / anarcho-liberal and socialist / communist inventions that you have fire during the game (N = 5 if you get the five inventions in the liberal / anarcho-liberal or socialist / communist group of inventions to fire during the game, and N = 10 if you get all inventions in both groups to fire).

As a democracy an additional benefit from the boost to plurality from the liberal / anarcho-liberal and socialist / communist groups of inventions is that this will make your country more attractive to immigrants (provided you have most of the other necessary conditions in place – refer to the POP Activity Guide or the Immigration/Emigration and Migration Guide). A 25% increase in plurality can be a real shot in the arm for immigration, especially early in the game when most other countries’ plurality is still low.

For a constitutional monarchy plurality has no direct effect on militancy, but it still does scale the effect of your reforms on your POPs’ militancy (the higher your plurality the greater the effect on militancy – positive or negative – that your reforms have) and affect immigration. Unlike in a democracy where it is generally better to pursue Ideological Thought early, or in a monarchy, presidential dictatorship or proletarian dictatorship where it is generally better to research it later, timing your research of Ideological Thought in a constitutional monarchy is a bit more complicated.

If you have most of the conditions in place to get immigrants (constitutional monarchies can get them if they have the usual conditions in place; they just won’t get as many as democracies will) including a liberal ruling party and at least some reforms, then going for Ideological Thought early (and having the liberal / anarcho-liberal group of inventions fire) can give you the boost in plurality that is often needed to open or increase the flow of immigrants to your country.

If you are not in a position to get immigrants, then when you will be best off researching Ideological Thought will depend on what reforms, if any, you currently have in place (and more particularly, on what effects they are having on your POPs’ militancy), and the ideology of your current ruling party. If your reforms (or more usually, lack thereof) are causing a lot of your POPs’ militancy to rise, then you will want to hold off on Ideological Thought if you currently have a liberal / anarcho-liberal / socialist / communist ruling party: an increase in plurality will only magnify the militancy rise. However if in this circumstance you currently have a conservative or reactionary party in power, the drop in plurality will certainly help make your POPs’ militancy more immune to your current reform situation. Then later on when you industrialise more, and have more money to put some decent reforms in place, you are more likely to have a liberal (or even socialist) party come to power and have the plurality increasing inventions fire which will make the effect of those reforms more powerful. Whilst it can be difficult, by timing your research of Ideological Thought well in a constitutional monarchy you can make the best of the effects of both the plurality reducing and plurality increasing groups of inventions.

The Tech Tree Ahead

Ideological Thought is a prerequisite for the following techs:
Collectivist Theory – T3203 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Realism – T4003 (1836/1850) in VIP only
Impressionism – T4004 (1836/1870) in vanilla & VIP
Empiricism – T4103 (1836/1855) in VIP only
Analytic Philosophy – T4104 (1836/1875) in vanilla & VIP
Biologism – T4204 (1836/1870) in vanilla & VIP
State & Government – T4303 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Associationism – T4402 (1836) in VIP only
Experimental Psychology – T4404 (1836) in vanilla & VIP

As well as being an important tech in its own right, as shown in the above list Ideological Thought is a gateway into the fourth tier of the culture techs (and even some of the second and third tier in VIP), so you usually can’t delay researching it for too long. This is especially true if you are pursuing the prestige by cultural inventions strategy.

State and Government – T4303 (1836)

State & Government is one of the hardest techs in the game to properly comprehend. It fires four inventions that each offer a choice between two options. Ideological Thought will have given you a chance to influence the political direction that you want your country to take in the game; now State & Government will bring you to a number of forks in the road of your nation’s political course after which there will be no turning back. The choices you make here are often critical to your success.

Clericalism vs. Anticlericalism – I449 (1836)

  • Choosing Clericalism will set the dominant issue for 25% of your POPs nationwide to moralism.
  • Choosing Anticlericalism will set the dominant issue for 25% of your POPs nationwide to atheism.

This choice will really only have a short term effect – probably a few years only – as the issues of your POPs tend to change continually over time anyway (for this reason it is one of the least important of the State & Government choices). It's best to choose whatever lines up with the religious policy of your current ruling party (if possible) to keep militancy down (a nice -0.20 modifier to militancy is applied to POPs with the same dominant issue as the current ruling party), unless you have an election due shortly and want to get a different party elected.

In the case where you are a monarchy your ruling party will often have moralism as its religious policy. If this is the case you should definitely choose Clericalism and take advantage of the negative modifier to militancy (at least until your POPs’ issues change again). In a Monarchy anything you can do to keep militancy down is valuable.

Bureaucracy vs. Nepotism – I450 (1836)

  • Choosing Bureaucracy allows the following random events to occur:
    1. Bureaucratic Quagmire (event 22012): loan interest rate + 10%
    2. Efficient Management in [state] (event 22013): militancy for all POPs in [state] -2
    3. Efficient Taxation (event 22022): treasury +£200
  • Choosing Nepotism allows the following random events to occur:
    1. Corruption Scandal (if dem or con mon) (event 22014): hold election
    2. Corruption Scandal in [state] (if not dem or con mon) (event 22020): militancy for all POPs in [state] +1
    3. Slush Funds (event 22015): treasury +£200
    4. Bought Loyalists (event 22021): reliability of cavalry +1

In my opinion Bureaucracy is a slightly better choice, especially in a monarchy, presidential dictatorship or proletarian dictatorship where the +1 militancy to all POPs in one of your states for a Corruption Scandal under Nepotism could hurt. Unless you have a tendency to carry large amounts of debt (especially early in the game), the increased cost of interest payments if a Bureaucratic Quagmire occurs is more of a nuisance than a real problem.

Meritocracy vs. Aristocracy – I451 (1836)

Government must NOT be socialist for this invention to fire

  • Choosing Meritocracy causes ONE of the following events to occur (once only), and sleeps the other:
    1. The Aristocrats withdraw to their Castles and Manors (event 22018): Mil of aristocrats -5, Plurality +5, Aristocrat bonus -50%
    2. Merit is the guiding succession principle in Government (event 22019): Diplo efficiency -20%, Plurality +5, Cost of expanding factories -20%

Additionally, Meritocracy allows the Stock Market Crash (event 23000) random event to occur (it can occur multiple times), which decreases tax efficiency for the rich by 10% and (in VIP only) for the middle class by 5%. NB. You must also have the Stock Exchange commerce tech for Stock Market Crash to occur. Also, each immoral business crime building in your country increases the chance of a Stock Market Crash occurring.

In VIP, Meritocracy also allows the Stock Market Hausse (event 23004) random event to occur, which increases tax efficiency for the rich by 10% and for the middle class by 5% (i.e. the exact opposite effect to Stock Market Crash). For both of these events to occur you must also have the Stock Exchange commerce tech. In VIP these two events are set up so that they alternate (i.e. another Stock Market Crash cannot occur until a Stock Market Hausse has occurred, and vice versa). The sequence appears always to start with a Stock Market Crash rather than a Stock Market Hausse. This setup in VIP certainly limits the potential damage due to stock market crashes that choosing Meritocracy can do.

  • Choosing Aristocracy causes BOTH of the following events to occur (once each):
    1. The Capitalists are socially degraded (event 22016): Mil of capitalists -5, Plurality -5, capitalist bonus -50%
    2. Birth is the guiding succession principle in Government (event 22017): Diplo efficiency +20%, Cost of expanding factories +20%

Aristocracy prevents the Stock Market Crash event occurring, and in VIP also prevents the Stock Market Hausse event from occurring.

Unless you are not likely – or aiming – to become a highly industrialised nation with lots of capitalists during the game, in my opinion Meritocracy is plainly better than Aristocracy: that 50% decrease in your capitalist bonus under Aristocracy is really something to avoid at all costs and the increased cost of expanding factories will hurt too. Stock Market Crash is a clear hazard with Meritocracy (especially in vanilla), but if you keep on top of crime you should only have one or two of these before you can research the high-end commerce techs which open up events that vastly decrease its possibility of occurring. Also be aware that the reduction in your diplomatic efficiency (this reduces the number of diplomats you get each year) if the second Meritocracy event is the one that fires can often cramp your diplomacy, but again, it’s a smaller price to pay. Even in a monarchy / presidential dictatorship / proletarian dictatorship (where plurality increases militancy) I’d still prefer to take the 5% extra plurality from choosing Meritocracy than the 5% plurality decrease and 50% capitalist bonus reduction from choosing Aristocracy. The only exception would be if I’m playing backward, uncivilised Bashi-Bazouks and don’t expect to civilise or get much industrialisation done during the game.

In the long run, even after factoring in the extra plurality and the possibility of a couple of stock market crashes and 20% less diplomatic efficiency, you'll be better off with Meritocracy in most cases. You must get (and keep) on top of crime once you have chosen it though; otherwise (at least in vanilla) stock market crashes could ruin your game.

Populism vs. Establishment – I448 (1836)

  • Choosing Populism will cause your POPs to vote predominantly according to their issues (free trade, pro military etc).
  • Choosing Establishment will cause your POPs to vote predominantly according to their ideology (liberal, reactionary etc).

This one is a really interesting and often crucial choice (so long as you don’t have and intend to keep either a one-party system or no voting rights for the duration of the game, in which case it will have no effect whatsoever).

If you are happy with your current ruling party, are not planning to change government type (eg monarchy -> democracy, therefore possibly gaining and / or losing some political parties) and are not still needing to convert lots of POPs (thus changing their ideology, eg labourers -> craftsmen = conservative -> liberal or possibly socialist depending on taxes) then Establishment is the clear choice as it makes your POP voting patterns more consistent. Note that Establishment will tend to cement a liberal party in power once you become a highly industrialised nation with lots of naturally liberal clerk, craftsmen and capitalist POPs (unless you are taxing them to buggery and sending them socialist).

Generally Populism makes your POPs' voting patterns more erratic and more influenceable by the election events that occur during election campaigns. If you need to have more influence over your POPs to try to change their voting patterns, especially if a smallish change might make them vote for another party that you prefer better than the one that is usually in power, then you should go for Populism. Also, Populism is more effective in a smaller country with fewer states: in a country with only 4 states, each election issue choice affects on average 25% of your POPs, whereas in a country with 14 states it affects on average only 7% of your POPs.

The starting setting for vote_on_ideology is 'yes', you can change it thanks to this invention. Taking Populism will change it to 'no' while taking Establishment will leave it at 'yes'. The bigger the country the less significant this choice is. For really big countries with a lot of states it may happen that neither choice will influence the election results.

Important Point: Make Your Choices Ahead of Time

In order to make the four choices described above, you will need to have a clear understanding of the current political state of your nation and its future political direction. This entails checking over such things as the Politics menu in the main interface (what is your government type, party system and current plurality; what is your current ruling party and what other parties are available; what’s the breakdown in the Latest Polls graph), the Population menu in the main interface (what do the graphs say about the breakdown of the workforce type, ideology, dominant and secondary issues of your POPs), and the Population Overview (p6) of the ledger (which POPs have high militancy, and/or high consciousness and what is their workforce type, ideology and issues; how many of your POPs have high militancy and/or increasing militancy; what are the main things increasing and decreasing your POPs’ militancy; what type of POPs have the same ideology and/or issues as your current ruling party).

When each of the choices fire you will be prevented from checking any of these very important things until after you have made your choice. Therefore, in order not to have to make these often crucial choices blind, you should check all of the relevant information and decide what choices you are going to make before the choices fire (write your four choices down). I strongly recommend you do this just before you finish researching the State & Government tech.

Timing Your Research of State and Government

In addition to making the four choices described above, timing the point at which you research State & Government is also very important. If you still have a long way to go in your industrialisation, and especially if you plan to change your government type in the future, you are better to hold off on State & Government and research other things, because getting State & Government too early will make the Meritocracy choice hurt a bit in the early stages (especially if you rack up a lot of stock market crashes), and will make the Populism vs. Establishment choice rather difficult to make. Generally I try to hold off on State & Government until I am either a constitutional monarchy or democracy and I am at least some way into my industrialisation.

Keeping the above points in mind, you will however have to research State & Government at some point in the middle of the game (and possibly earlier than you might otherwise like) because it is a prerequisite for a large number of commercial and in particular cultural techs (see the list below). This is especially true in VIP, where State & Government opens up the entire fourth and fifth (i.e. top) tier of the culture techs. Even in vanilla you’ll need it to be able to research any of the top tier of the culture techs.

The Tech Tree Ahead

State & Government is a prerequisite for the following techs:
Bank Inspection Board – T3005 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Central bank Money Bill Printing – T3104 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Neoclassical Theory and Institutionalism - T3205 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Business Regulations – T3303 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Impressionism – T4004 (1836/1870) in VIP only
Expressionism – T4005 (1836/1885) in vanilla & VIP
Analytic Philosophy – T4104 (1836/1875) in VIP only
Phenomenology & Hermeneutic –T4105 (1836/1885) in vanilla & VIP
Social Science – T4205 (1836/1885) in vanilla & VIP
Nationalism & Imperialism – T4304 (1836/1850) in vanilla & VIP
Phenomenalism – T4403 (1836) in VIP only
Psychoanalysis – T4405 (1836) in vanilla & VIP

Nationalism and Imperialism – T4304 (1870 in vanilla / 1850 in VIP)

The eight inventions associated with Nationalism & Imperialism have a fairly wide ranging set of effects. As a result the effect of this tech on your nation will vary somewhat according to your circumstances. However, unlike the previous two Political Thought techs, there is a possibility that Nationalism & Imperialism may not have a large impact on your nation at all.

National Fraternity - I452 (1880)

  • Change plurality by 5%
  • Modify militancy for liberal by -2
  • Modify militancy for socialist by -2
  • Modify militancy for anarcho-liberal by -2
  • Modify militancy for communist by -2
  • Modify consciousness for liberal by 2
  • Modify consciousness for socialist by 2
  • Modify consciousness for anarcho-liberal by 2
  • Modify consciousness for communist by 2

National Fraternity is good news for most cases, especially in industrialised countries with lots of liberal (and possibly socialist) factory workers. The increased consciousness and plurality can in the long term hurt a monarchy / presidential dictatorship / proletarian dictatorship though, especially if you are past the initial steps of your industrialisation and have uncomfortable numbers of liberal - and perhaps even socialist – POPs (although the initial drop in militancy for these POPs will take the edge off the problem in the short term).

Biased Multiculturalism - I453 (1880)

Must have cultural minorities in the country for this invention to fire

  • Change minority emigration rate by 10%

Biased Multiculturalism will only affect you if you already have (or may possibly have in future) a problem with your POPs emigrating. See the Emigration Boundary Table in the POP Activity Guide for the conditions that can bring this into play. If you do have the open wound of an emigration problem, then (unless you have no cultural minorities in your country – which would be unusual) Biased Multiculturalism will further increase the blood loss.

Manifest Destiny I454 (1880)

Must have jingoism as current government policy for this invention to fire

  • Change ratio for prestige gained from defence spending by 100
  • Increase max morale for infantry by 3
  • Increase max morale for cavalry by 3
  • Increase max morale for dragoon by 3
  • Increase max morale for irregular by 3
  • Increase max morale for battleship by 3
  • Increase max morale for cruiser by 3
  • Increase max morale for dreadnought by 3
  • Increase max morale for monitor by 3
  • Increase max morale for ironclad by 3
  • Increase max morale for man-o-war by 3
  • Increase max morale for heavy cruiser by 3
  • Increase max morale for frigate by 3
  • Increase max morale for commerce raider by 3
  • Increase max morale for submarine by 3
  • Increase max morale for steamer transport by 3
  • Increase max morale for clipper transport by 3
  • Change supply consumption for irregular by 1%
  • Change supply consumption for infantry by 2%
  • Change supply consumption for cavalry by 6%
  • Change supply consumption for dragoon by 4%

If you have a jingoist party in power then Manifest Destiny is a nice invention to get. Note however that the extra prestige gained from defence spending due to the increased ratio won’t amount to all that much, simply because the amount of prestige you earn from defence spending isn’t much in the first place.

Expansionism - I455 (1880)

Must have jingoism as current government policy for this invention to fire

  • Set dominant issue for 40% to be jingoism
  • Change research establishment to army industrial
  • Add 3 random non-national provinces bordering your nation to your core provinces

Like Manifest Destiny, Expansionism is another invention that will only affect those who currently have or will later get a jingoist party in power. Setting 40% of your POPs to jingoism as their dominant issue will help keep down / reduce the militancy of those POPs (their dominant issue will match that of your ruling party) – at least for a few years until their issues change as usual. It will also increase the likelihood of your current, jingoist, government winning the next election (especially if you have chosen Populism from the State & Government choices) – whether this is a good or bad thing depends on your parties available and current circumstances.

Gaining 3 extra core provinces can be nice, although it is totally random as to which ones you get. The three extra cores you get can range from excellent (eg lucrative, well populated provinces in Europe currently owned by a potential enemy) to practically useless (eg an almost empty patch of sand in the Sahara desert owned by a Great Power). The latter becomes a distinct possibility if you have colonies with land borders.

Be aware also of other countries (particularly Great Powers) getting this invention: they may gain one or more cores on YOU which may make them more likely to DoW you! You can’t prevent them getting the cores, but some diplomacy and/or increasing your military strength may prevent a subsequent DoW.

The downside to Expansionism is the change of research establishment to Army-Industrial, especially if you are currently prioritising techs other than the army ones and/or currently have the preferable Traditional Academic Circle establishment.

Mission to Civilise - I456 (1880)

  • Change ratio for prestige gained from creating colonies by 100
  • Change modifier for colonial migration by 5%

If you are in the process of colonising, Mission to Civilise is the jewel in the crown of Nationalism & Imperialism, as it doubles the amount of prestige you gain from claiming colonies. Realistically, there are only two ways to gain large amounts of prestige in the game: aggressively pursue the culture techs that have the prestige giving culture inventions, or claim colonies. To be really successful in the game you have to do at least one of these things and if you have chosen the colonial route then Mission to Civilise will be a vital ingredient in your success. If you don’t consider it too gamey you may even consider holding off on claiming colonies that you are currently in a position to claim until you have gained Mission to Civilise (there is little danger of the AI taking your claims even in a war – it is simply not programmed to do so).

The increased colonial migration modifier will in most cases have little impact, since colonial migration mostly relies on having full RGOs and additional unemployed farmers and labourers of a long range culture (European or Chinese cultures: refer to the Culture group list from the POP Activity Guide) which tend to be rare unless you annex one or more provinces from China.

Separatism - I457 (1880)

Must have cultural minorities in the country for this invention to fire

  • Set separatism value to yes

The actual effect of Separatism is one of the great mysteries of the game. Once this invention fires every POP that is not of one of your national cultures has a separatism modifier added to their list of militancy modifiers. However, the modifier always seems to be 0.00 thus having no discernable effect. Neither does having this modifier produce any revolt risk, in the way that nationalism does. As far as I know this invention doesn’t have any practical effect.

National Trauma - I458 (1880)

At least 50% of national provinces must be occupied by foreigners for this invention to fire

  • Set national trauma value to yes

Well, you’re in fairly dire straits if you meet the prerequisites for National Trauma to fire. Worse, National Trauma creates the potential for even more problems in the future. Think of it as your country suffering defeatism and not wanting to fight anymore. With national trauma losing further wars costs you a greater loss of prestige, and will also increase militancy of your POPs.

Revanchism - I459 (1880)

At least 25% of national provinces must be owned by foreigners for this invention to fire

  • Set revanchism value to yes

Revanchism is a national desire for revenge; especially with the intention to regain lost territory (the French desire to regain Alsace-Lorraine after their defeat by Prussia in 1871 is a prime historical example of revanchism; and the word itself actually comes from French). With Revanchism, DoWing Great Powers which occupy your national provinces costs less loss of prestige.

Generally, except for countries that only have a small number of provinces or those who have a significant number of national (i.e. core) provinces outside of their normal borders (eg. the German and Italian nations when not unified), the bar is set reasonably high on Revanchism. If you are in a position for Revanchism to fire you really have some significant problems which Revanchism won’t do much to solve. You should be aware of it in other countries though – particularly ones that you have defeated and of which you are holding core provinces: these countries may be more willing to DoW you to gain their core provinces back.

NB. The election campaign event Revanchist Rallies in [state] (event 25111), although seemingly dependent on the revanchism flag being set to yes by the Revanchism invention in order to fire, can actually occur even if you never gain the Revanchism invention and the revanchism flag remains set to no. All that is required for the Revanchist Rallies event to fire is to currently be in election campaign, and have 1% or more of national provinces currently owned by other countries.

The Tech Tree Ahead

Nationalism & Imperialism is a prerequisite for the following techs:
Expressionism – T4005 (1836/1885) in VIP only
Phenomenology & Hermeneutic – T4105 (1836/1885) in VIP only
Social Science – T4205 (1836/1885) in VIP only
Revolution & Counterrevolution – T4305 (1836) in vanilla & VIP
Experimental Psychology – T4404 (1836) in VIP only

Should I Prioritise Researching Nationalism and Imperialism?

What to make of the quite varied set of effects unleashed by Nationalism & Imperialism? Firstly, although you can research Nationalism & Imperialism from as early as 1870 in vanilla or 1850 in VIP (once you have the prerequisite techs), none of its inventions fire until 1880 so you are usually best off pursuing other techs prior to then. Come 1880, what level of priority you place on Nationalism & Imperialism – particularly as you will also likely be in a position to be getting amongst the higher level industrial, commercial and/or army techs at the same time – depends on your circumstances and overall game strategy.

If colonisation is a key part of your overall game plan and there are still colonies which you are likely to be in a position to claim after 1880, then getting Nationalism & Imperialism should be a fairly high priority so you can get the Mission to Civilise invention. Especially in VIP where the colonisation bans for Africa aren’t lifted until 1879 (at the earliest) this is a real consideration for the European countries that are in a position to colonise.

Nationalism & Imperialism is also worth prioritising over other techs if you have (or are likely to have in the near future) a ruling party with a military policy of jingoism, and a warmongering agenda. In this circumstance the effects of the Manifest Destiny and Expansionism inventions can be quite useful.

Other than in the particular circumstances noted above, there is really no great rush to research Nationalism & Imperialism. The National Fraternity invention is normally nothing to get hugely excited about – even in an industrialised democracy or constitutional monarchy – and the others most likely won’t have much (if any) effect on you. Generally you would expect not to lose a war badly enough – at least in single player – to have Revanchism and/or National Trauma fire. Finally, if you have an emigration problem then you will probably want to postpone researching Nationalism & Imperialism until you have it under control, in order to avoid the effect of Biased Multiculturalism.

Revolution and Counterrevolution – T4305 (1880)

The last of the Political Thought techs, Revolution & Counterrevolution has the reputation amongst experienced players as being the worst tech in the game due to the nature of its nine inventions, and with fair reason. But whilst there are no real “must have” positive benefits of this tech, it’s not all bad news either.

Dogma of Violence - I460 (1895)

  • Activate crime building type anarchic bomb throwers

Anarchic bomb throwers increase the chance of the Political Assassination random event occurring by 0.5% for every anarchic bomb thrower crime building in your country (in addition to the event’s base chance of occurring of 1% every four months). This means that having two anarchic bomb thrower crime buildings present in your country will double the chance that a Political Assassination will occur, and four will triple it, etc.

Political Assassination (event 22023) has the following effects: prestige -10 (-5 in VIP), treasury -£100, Mil of conservative POPs +1, Con of conservative POPs +1. Obviously, repeated Political Assassinations can have nasty effects, especially on your conservative POPs. They also tend to occur in clusters of two or sometimes three within a few months to a year of each other, making them potentially even more dangerous by concentrating their effects time-wise.

Although Dogma of Violence makes an additional type of crime building possible (and at that, one which increases the chance of a Political Assassination occurring), by the time you get it you should be raking in enough money to keep crime well under control. So the effect of Dogma of Violence shouldn’t be as bad as it sounds, unless you let crime get out of hand.

Dogma of Mass Action - I461 (1849)

  • Modify rebel spawn rate for communist by 100

The effect here is to increase the likelihood that communist POPs will revolt by 100% (i.e. double the likelihood). How much this might hurt you depends on the current state of your nation. For a POP to become communist during the general course of the game (i.e. barring any specialised events), it firstly has to be socialist and then its militancy has to reach 8 or above. If you have been struggling to keep a lid on your POPs’ militancy (especially if you have also been overtaxing them and sending them socialist), and as a result have significant numbers of communist POPs, Dogma of Mass Action can certainly increase your headaches by increasing the number of revolts in your country. Particularly if you undergo the Socialist Revolution (it can occur from 1890 onwards in vanilla / 1895 onwards in VIP), which can often result in significantly increased numbers of communist POPs in your nation, Dogma of Mass Action has the potential to be quite painful revolt-wise. The effect is even worse in VIP, where the Socialist Revolution increases the spawn rate for communists by a further 50%.

The trick to limiting the potential pain of Dogma of Mass Action is to not overtax your POPs (to keep the numbers of socialist POPs down), keep your POPs’ militancy under control (so any socialist POPs you do have don’t turn communist), and to enact the necessary reforms to avoid the Socialist Revolution. A well managed nation will usually have very few communist POPs and thus Dogma of Mass Action will be of very little consequence if you can manage your nation well.

Terrorism - I462 (1849)

Government must be conservative OR Government must be liberal for this invention to fire

  • Activate crime building type terrorist cells

Realistically, you are usually quite unlikely to get the Revolution & Counterrevolution tech, and thus Terrorism, anywhere near as early as 1849. Once you do get Terrorism, the effect of terrorist cells is to double the pre-existing revolt risk (due to militancy, war exhaustion and/or nationalism) in the province in which the terrorist cell crime building is present (NB. terrorist cells do not create any revolt risk of their own accord). For detailed information on the factors that produce revolt risk see the “Some Notes on Revolt Risk” section of the Dealing with Rebellions.

How much of a problem Terrorism may cause you will depend on how much of a problem you already have with revolt risk, and on your level of crime fighting spending. If you have no, or low, revolt risk in your provinces then terrorist cells will do little harm. If you maintain a sufficient level of crime fighting spending terrorist cells won’t pop up in the first place. But a combination of having provinces with high revolt risk and insufficient crime fighting spending will lead to an increased incidence of revolts once terrorist cells start appearing.

As for Dogma of Violence, the potentially damaging effects of Terrorism can be prevented by keeping crime well under control.

General Strikes - I463 (1880)

Must NOT have reform trade unions of level all for this invention to fire

  • Set policy for trade unions to all
  • Set policy for public meetings to yes
  • Makes possible the following random events:
    1. Miners Trade Union Strikes (event 22000): Can only occur if Trade Union reform level is: no trade unions allowed (in vanilla) / only non-socialist allowed, only socialist allowed or all allowed (in VIP).
      Option A: This Government will not accept these demands
      Decrease production modifier for coal mine by 5
      Decrease production modifier for iron mine by 5
      Decrease production modifier for precious metals mine by 5
      Decrease production modifier for sulphur mine by 5
      Decrease production modifier for rubber lodge by 5
      Decrease production modifier for oil rig by 5
      Consciousness of labourers decreased by 2
      Militancy of labourers increased by 2
      Option B: Try to conciliate the workers
      Consciousness of aristocrats increased by 2
      Militancy of aristocrats increased by 2
      Consciousness of officers increased by 1
      Militancy of officers increased by 1
      Consciousness of capitalists increased by 2
      Militancy of capitalists increased by 2
      Consciousness of clerks increased by 1
      Militancy of clerks increased by 1
      Decrease treasury by £1000
    2. Armament Workers Trade Union Strikes (event 22001): Can only occur if Trade Union reform level is: no trade unions allowed (in vanilla) / only non-socialist allowed, only socialist allowed or all allowed (in VIP).
      Option A: This Government will not accept these demands
      Decrease production modifier for ammunition factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for small arms factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for artillery factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for barrel factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for clipper shipyard by 5
      Decrease production modifier for steamer shipyard by 5
      Consciousness of craftsmen increased by 2
      Militancy of craftsmen increased by 2
      Option B: Try to conciliate the workers
      Consciousness of aristocrats increased by 2
      Militancy of aristocrats increased by 2
      Consciousness of officers increased by 1
      Militancy of officers increased by 1
      Consciousness of capitalists increased by 2
      Militancy of capitalists increased by 2
      Consciousness of clerks increased by 1
      Militancy of clerks increased by 1
      Decrease treasury by £1000
    3. Armament Workers Trade Union Strikes (event 22002): Can only occur if Trade Union reform level is: no trade unions allowed (in vanilla) / only non-socialist allowed, only socialist allowed or all allowed (in VIP).
      Option A: This Government will not accept these demands
      Decrease production modifier for steel factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for cement factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for glass factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for fertilizer factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for explosives factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for fuel refinery by 5
      Consciousness of craftsmen increased by 2
      Militancy of craftsmen increased by 2
      Option B: Try to conciliate the workers
      Consciousness of aristocrats increased by 2
      Militancy of aristocrats increased by 2
      Consciousness of officers increased by 1
      Militancy of officers increased by 1
      Consciousness of capitalists increased by 2
      Militancy of capitalists increased by 2
      Consciousness of clerks increased by 1
      Militancy of clerks increased by 1
      Decrease treasury by £1000
    4. Hardware Workers Trade Union Strikes (event 22003): Can only occur if Trade Union reform level is: no trade unions allowed (in vanilla) / only non-socialist allowed, only socialist allowed or all allowed (in VIP).
      Option A: This Government will not accept these demands
      Decrease production modifier for machine parts factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for automobile factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for aeroplane factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for electric gear factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for telephone factory by 5
      Consciousness of craftsmen increased by 2
      Militancy of craftsmen increased by 2
      Option B: Try to conciliate the workers
      Consciousness of aristocrats increased by 2
      Militancy of aristocrats increased by 2
      Consciousness of officers increased by 1
      Militancy of officers increased by 1
      Consciousness of capitalists increased by 2
      Militancy of capitalists increased by 2
      Consciousness of clerks increased by 1
      Militancy of clerks increased by 1
      Decrease treasury by £1000
    5. Textile Workers Trade Union Strikes (event 22004): Can only occur if Trade Union reform level is: no trade unions allowed (in vanilla) / only non-socialist allowed, only socialist allowed or all allowed (in VIP).
      Option A: This Government will not accept these demands
      Decrease production modifier for fabric factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for silk factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for regular clothes factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for luxury clothes factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for dye factory by 5
      Consciousness of craftsmen increased by 2
      Militancy of craftsmen increased by 2
      Option B: Try to conciliate the workers
      Consciousness of aristocrats increased by 2
      Militancy of aristocrats increased by 2
      Consciousness of officers increased by 1
      Militancy of officers increased by 1
      Consciousness of capitalists increased by 2
      Militancy of capitalists increased by 2
      Consciousness of clerks increased by 1
      Militancy of clerks increased by 1
      Decrease treasury by £1000
    6. Wood Workers Trade Union Strikes (event 22005): Can only occur if Trade Union reform level is: no trade unions allowed (in vanilla) / only non-socialist allowed, only socialist allowed or all allowed (in VIP).
      Option A: This Government will not accept these demands
      Decrease production modifier for furniture factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for luxury furniture factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for lumber mill by 5
      Decrease production modifier for paper mill by 5
      Consciousness of craftsmen increased by 2
      Militancy of craftsmen increased by 2
      Option B: Try to conciliate the workers
      Consciousness of aristocrats increased by 2
      Militancy of aristocrats increased by 2
      Consciousness of officers increased by 1
      Militancy of officers increased by 1
      Consciousness of capitalists increased by 2
      Militancy of capitalists increased by 2
      Consciousness of clerks increased by 1
      Militancy of clerks increased by 1
      Decrease treasury by £1000
    7. Farmers Trade Union Strikes (event 22006): Can only occur if Trade Union reform level is: no trade unions allowed (in vanilla) / only non-socialist allowed, only socialist allowed or all allowed (in VIP).
      Option A: This Government will not accept these demands
      Decrease production modifier for cattle ranch by 5
      Decrease production modifier for orchard by 5
      Decrease production modifier for grain farm by 5
      Decrease production modifier for canned food factory by 5
      Decrease production modifier for winery by 5
      Decrease production modifier for liquor distillery by 5
      Consciousness of farmers increased by 2
      Militancy of farmers increased by 2
      Option B: Try to conciliate the workers
      Consciousness of aristocrats increased by 2
      Militancy of aristocrats increased by 2
      Consciousness of officers increased by 1
      Militancy of officers increased by 1
      Consciousness of capitalists increased by 2
      Militancy of capitalists increased by 2
      Consciousness of clerks increased by 1
      Militancy of clerks increased by 1
      Decrease treasury by £1000

As you can see, the seven Trade Union Strikes events that General Strikes makes possible are pretty nasty (each offering a choice between two evils), however they can be avoided altogether. How to do so differs between vanilla and VIP.

In vanilla, the Trade Union Strikes events can be avoided by setting your trade union reform to anything other than no trade unions allowed. Since the general Strikes invention sets your trade union reform to all allowed anyway you would actually have to take a retrograde step (i.e. change your trade union policy back to no trade unions allowed) to open up the possibility of any of these debilitating events actually occurring. You will have to maintain a trade union policy that may increase the militancy modifier for aristocrats, officers, clergymen and capitalists to thwart the Trade Union Strikes events, but this can be balanced out by your other reform settings if need be. With the various Trade Union Strikes events neatly sidestepped, General Strikes can actually be beneficial, since it gets it gets you two reforms enacted for free (all trade unions allowed and public meetings allowed), although in many cases you will probably already have public meetings allowed anyway.

In VIP, the Trade Union Strikes events can be avoided by either:

  1. having your trade union reform set to all allowed by the time you get Revolution and Counterrevolution and thereafter maintaining it at all allowed for the remainder of the game, thus preventing the General Strikes invention from ever firing; or otherwise
  2. changing your trade union reform to no trade unions allowed as soon as the General Strikes invention fires and thereafter maintaining it at no trade unions allowed for the remainder of the game, thus preventing any of the Trade Union Strikes events from ever firing.

Option b is really a fallback position from option a – you can go from option a to option b but not vice versa. Which you should choose depends on which trade union reform setting will best suit your nation: all allowed (option a) if your craftsmen, farmers and labourers need placating militancy-wise; or no trade unions allowed (option b) if your aristocrats, officers, clergymen, capitalists and soldiers need placating militancy-wise. Unlike in vanilla, allowing the General Strikes invention to fire won’t really give you the benefit of getting two reforms enacted for free, since you will have to change your trade union reform from all allowed to no trade unions allowed as soon as you get it to prevent the Trade Union Strikes events from occurring.

Secret Police - I464 (1895)

Must NOT have reform voting rights of level universal suffrage for this invention to fire

  • Increase efficiency for police by 10%

The actual effect here is to reduce your crime fighting costs by 10%. This might be handy if crime fighting costs are eating up a large part of your budget (and also, you haven’t enacted universal suffrage), but more usually by 1895 you are fairly swimming in cash (and by this point are most likely have crime under control anyway), so Secret Police is not really that helpful.

Women's Suffrage Movement - I465 (1870)

Must have reform voting rights of level universal suffrage, currently be in an election campaign, be regarded as civilised, and have full citizenship as current government policy for this invention to fire

  • Change production modifier for ammunition factory by 25
  • Change production modifier for small arms factory by 25
  • Change production modifier for artillery factory by 25

A nice invention IF you can line up all of the four conditions required (plus a dose of luck) for it to fire. Due to the rather specific set of conditions, and the offset of 57 (meaning that the invention checks whether the conditions have been met once every 57 days), it is actually somewhat rare for this invention to fire at all during the game. It would, however, be unusual to not have at least one or more of the relevant factories to be in a position to benefit from the 25% production increases provided by Women’s Suffrage Movement should it fire.

Rhetoric of Hate - I466 (1895)

  • Change available manpower by 100
  • Change relation with a random country by -100
  • Makes possible the following random events:
    1. Proletarian Demagogue (event 22007): Can only occur if government type is not proletarian dictatorship. Consciousness of socialist increased by 1, Consciousness of communist increased by 1.
    2. Militaristic Demagogue (event 22008): Can only occur if government type is not monarchy or presidential dictatorship. Dominant issue for 2% of the population set to jingoism, Dominant issue for 5% of the population set to pro military.

Rhetoric of Hate sounds bad, and might be if the -100 relation hit is with an important country you are really trying to be on good terms with (if you are really unlucky it could even lead to war with them), but more often the relation hit is with a country you don’t particularly care about and the 100 manpower top-up comes in handy. Note that your manpower is topped-up by up to 100 and will NOT go above your current maximum manpower (hover the cursor over the manpower icon to see what your current maximum manpower is). Thus if your current manpower is 129 and your maximum manpower is currently 186, your manpower will be brought up to 186, not to 229. It can be frustrating when Rhetoric of Hate fires at a time when your current manpower is already at or near your current maximum manpower level – thus giving you no real benefit – but there’s no way of knowing exactly when inventions are going to fire and that’s just the luck of the draw with this particular one.

The two random events that Rhetoric of Hate makes possible are pretty innocuous and are nothing to be concerned (or overjoyed) about.

Nostalgic Romanticism - I467 (1895)

  • Modify rebel spawn rate for reactionary by 100

Similar to Dogma of Mass Action (see above), the effect of Nostalgic Romanticism is to increase the likelihood that reactionary POPs will revolt by 100% (i.e. double the likelihood). The difference is that to have reactionary POPs in your nation you need firstly to have conservative POPs whose militancy then has to reach 8 or above. How likely is this? Well if you have been industrialising then you are unlikely to have many conservative (and hence potentially reactionary) POPs left in your industrial heartland by 1895 when Nostalgic Romanticism becomes possible. If your nation is still quite agrarian then so long as you keep a lid on militancy you shouldn’t have too many reactionary POPs either.

Where Nostalgic Romanticism may have the most persistent effect is (ironically) in your colonies. These normally consist primarily of conservative farmers, labourers and aristocrats that don’t benefit from any of your reforms and can’t buy as many of their needs as your home POPs (because they only earn ½ the income): a bit of increased militancy here and noticeable numbers of reactionaries can result. This is especially the case in VIP where should you annex outright any of the uncivilised African nations this will trigger one of the “Unrest in Our African Possessions” events, which will add +4 militancy to all POPs in the provinces taken from the recently annexed nation. The resultant combination of increased numbers of high militancy reactionary POPs with their increased rebel spawn rate due to Nostalgic Romanticism and also nationalism in these same provinces can result in an almost perfect storm of revolts. But really, revolts in your colonies are very rarely serious matters and aside from giving some of your armies a spot of rebel crushing work to do, usually shouldn’t bother you too much.

Again, as for Dogma of Mass Action, managing your nation well will allow you to minimise the effect of Nostalgic Romanticism (or at least contain it to your colonies).

Anti-Egalitarianism - I468 (1895)

  • Activate crime building type citizen guards

Citizen guards increase the chance of the Battle for the Streets random event occurring by 0.5% for every citizen guards crime building in your country (in addition to the event’s base chance of occurring of 1% every four months). This means that having two citizen guards crime buildings present in your country will double the chance that a Battle for the Streets will occur, and four will triple it, etc.

Battle for the Streets (event 22024) has the following effects: life rating -5% in [province], cash for all POPs in [state] -£10000 (-£500 in VIP). The drop in life rating in the province is temporary and will recover at the rate of 1% every 6 months (i.e. it will take 2 ½ years for the province to return to its normal life rating). The drop in life rating also causes a consequent drop in POP growth rate in the province, usually of approx 0.04% per month (eg. the growth rate might drop from 0.17% per month to 0.13% per month). The province’s POP growth rate will recover in line with its life rating. Whilst they are not nearly as damaging as political assassinations or stock market crashes, battles for the streets are still best avoided. Again, maintaining sufficient crime fighting spending to minimise the incidence of crime is the way to do it.

As for Dogma of Violence, Anti-Egalitarianism occurs late enough in the game that you should by that point be bringing in enough money to keep crime well under control, thus preventing the potentially damaging effects of Anti-Egalitarianism.

The Tech Tree Ahead

Revolution & Counterrevolution is a prerequisite for the following tech:
Psychoanalysis – T4405 (1836) in VIP only

Should I Bother Researching Revolution and Counterrevolution?

The truth about the Revolution & Counterrevolution tech is that it looks worse than it actually is, and with careful management the worst of its potentially bad effects can be avoided. This applies in particular to the various Trade Union Strikes events opened up by General Strikes, the three new types of crime buildings made possible by Dogma of Violence, Terrorism and Anti-Egalitarianism, and the increased rebel spawn rate for communist POPs caused by to Dogma of Mass Action. Of the remaining negative effects, the increased rebel spawn rate for reactionary POPs due to Nostalgic Romanticism usually won’t hurt you too much, and whilst there is a chance that the -100 hit to relations with another country caused by Rhetoric of Hate may cause a real problem you would have to be quite unlucky for it to do so.

Depending on your circumstances, at least some of the remaining the Revolution & Counterrevolution inventions will be to your advantage. IF you can get it to fire, Women’s Suffrage Movement can be of great benefit to your industry. Rhetoric of Hate will give you a one-off boost of up to 100 to your current manpower, Secret Police will drop your crime fighting costs by 10%, and in vanilla General Strikes can be useful in getting you two reforms enacted for free (if you don’t already have them enacted). The potential benefits of these inventions should not be overlooked (especially Women’s Suffrage Movement).

In the final analysis, whilst Revolution & Counterrevolution is not a tech that you should really prioritise researching over other techs, nor is there usually any need to delay researching it, or to avoid researching it altogether. Once you do get Revolution & Counterrevolution though, it will be even more important to keep on top of crime.

Biologism – T4204 (1870 in vanilla / 1870 in VIP)

Biologism marks a decisive shift away from religion, and towards secularism and modern scientific research methods as important factors in the life of your nation.

  • Set dominant issue for 33% of your POPs nationwide to secularised

Darwinism - I427 (1880)

  • Change contribution to research from clergymen by -25
  • Change contribution to research from clerks by 25

Getting the Darwinism invention is the main reason to research Biologism, as it can and usually will have a major impact on your rate of Research Point (RP) gain, and thus how quickly you can climb the tech tree. Prior to Darwinism clerks and clergy both generate the same amount of RPs per capita, and generate more RPs per capita than any other type of POP. Darwinism increases the RP gain per capita generated by clerks, making them the overwhelmingly dominant factor in your rate of RP gain, whilst reducing that from clergy. The formulas for RP generation before and after Darwinism can be found in the Research point generation. So long as you have more national culture clerks than clergy in your country – and this will almost always be the case by the time you research Biologism unless you have barely industrialised – your rate of RP gain will increase when Darwinism fires. The increase will be quite substantial should your clerks outnumber your clergy by a fair margin, and will become even more pronounced as you continue to industrialise and promote POPs to clerks.

By decreasing the rate of RP gain of clergy Darwinism reduces the last practical use for them in a democracy or constitutional monarchy, since under these government types you don’t need (or, especially in a democracy, want) them reducing the consciousness of your soldiers, farmers and labourers. Therefore Darwinism allows the wholesale conversion of clergy to more productive POP types: this usually means conversion to clerks, craftsmen or capitalists, although it can also be worthwhile demoting clergy to labourers or farmers in provinces with high value RGOs. Even in a monarchy, presidential dictatorship or proletarian dictatorship where you still need the consciousness lowering effect of your clergy, it is often worthwhile converting excess clergy POPs to other POP types after Darwinism, especially in highly industrialised states with few remaining farmers, labourers and soldiers.

Social-Darwinism - I428 (1880)

  • Change modifier for colonial migration by 5%
  • Makes possible the following random events:
    1. War Propaganda (event 22009): Can only occur if at war.
      Increase the reliability of infantry by 1
      Increase the reliability of cavalry by 1
      Increase the reliability of dragoon by 1
      Increase the reliability of irregular by 1
      Increase the reliability of battleship by 1
      Increase the reliability of cruiser by 1
      Increase the reliability of dreadnought by 1
      Increase the reliability of monitor by 1
      Increase the reliability of ironclad by 1
      Increase the reliability of man-o-war by 1
      Increase the reliability of heavy cruiser by 1
      Increase the reliability of frigate by 1
      Increase the reliability of commerce raider by 1
      Increase the reliability of submarine by 1
      Increase the reliability of steamer transport by 1
      Increase the reliability of clipper transport by 1
    2. Minority Insurrection (event 22010): Can only occur if at war. Must have cultural minorities (VIP only).
      2 x revolts
      Militancy for all cultural minority POPs +4 (VIP only)
    3. Diplomatic Arrogance (event 22011): Must be a Great Power for this event to occur.
      Increase relations with a satellite or dominion by 25
      Decrease relations with a Great Power by 25
      Decrease relations with a random country by 20
      Increase relations with a random country by 10

As for the Mission to Civilise invention from Nationalism & Imperialism (see above), the increased colonial migration modifier due to Social-Darwinism will in most cases have little impact, since migration to your colonies tends to be rare. Neither are the effects of the random events that Social-Darwinism makes possible particularly dramatic, with the notable exception of Minority Insurrection in VIP, which if you have lots of minority culture POPs could cause you some serious headaches with militancy (and consequently, increased revolt risk and revolts).

Note that the two revolts (i.e. rebel units) that result directly from the Minority Insurrection event are not generated from any of your POPs, and can therefore be crushed without reducing the population of any of your POPs (this is true for all rebel units generated directly by events).

What Political Effects Does Biologism Have?

Politically speaking, Biologism’s most immediate effect is that gaining the tech itself sets the dominant issue for 33% of your nation’s POPs to secularised. Similar to the Clericalism vs. Anticlericalism choice arising from State & Government, the effect is only temporary: the issues of your POPs will tend to change again within a few years anyway. Unlike in that situation, this time you won’t get a choice in the matter.

Whether having the dominant issue for 33% of your POPs changed to secularised is a good or bad thing will depend on your current ruling party’s religious policy: if it is secularised then this is a good result, otherwise it may not be. This is particularly an issue in monarchies where the ruling party usually has moralism as its religious policy: the shift in your POPs attitudes towards being secularised will make it harder again to keep your POPs’ militancy down.

Also note that the secularising effect of Biologism can swing an election toward a party with secularised as its religious policy, particularly if you have chosen Populism in the State & Government choices. The phenomenon is temporary though – your POPs’ issues may very well have changed by the time the next election is due. Whether this shift towards secularisation is beneficial or detrimental will depend on the merits, given your current circumstances, of the various parties available. If for example your secular party is also free trade and you heavily are reliant on tariff income then this will clearly be disadvantageous.

The other political effect of Biologism is the reduction in the importance of clergy, especially in a democracy or constitutional monarchy, due to the firing of the Darwinism invention. Since this will normally lead you to convert at least some, if not most, of your clergy (who are naturally conservative under order national value) to craftsmen or clerks in particular (who are naturally liberal), Darwinism will normally tend to produce a swing away from conservatism toward liberalism in your nation. How much of an affect this will have, and how good or bad it will be politically, will depend on your government type, available party / parties, latest polls (if you are having elections) and the current militancy of your POPs. For example, turning more POPs liberal when you have a conservative ruling party and no elections (like in a monarchy) will tend to increase the militancy of those POPs. Generally, Darwinism will be of benefit politically to democracies (in particular) and constitutional monarchies and be of some political detriment to monarchies, presidential dictatorships and proletarian dictatorships.

It should be noted though, that whatever effects Biologism has on the political situation in your nation, its effect on your research – via Darwinism – is almost guaranteed to be far greater, especially in the long term.

When to Research Biologism

Given the dramatic effect that the Darwinism invention will normally have on your rate of RP gain (unless your nation is still very agrarian and your clergy outnumber your clerks), researching Biologism by the time Darwinism becomes available in 1880 should be one of your very top priorities. The beneficial effect of Darwinism on your research will almost always outweigh any potential detrimental effects, political or otherwise, due to Biologism and its inventions as discussed above (even in VIP where the increased militancy due to a Minority Insurrection has the potential to really hurt). In VIP an additional benefit of getting Biologism is that it opens up most of the top tier of the culture techs, as shown below (note that in VIP, Biologism is a prerequisite for the same techs - minus Revolution & Counterrevolution - as Nationalism & Imperialism).

The Tech Tree Ahead

Biologism is a prerequisite for the following techs:
Expressionism – T4005 (1836/1885) in VIP only
Phenomenology & Hermeneutic – T4105 (18361885) in VIP only
Social Science – T4205 (1836/1885) in vanilla & VIP
Experimental Psychology – T4404 (1836) in VIP only

Are There Any Other Politically Important Techs?

Although there are a few other techs that have some political effects, in each case the effect is generally minor.

Malthusian Thought – T4201 increases the modifier for colonial migration by 50%. Since POPs in colonies don’t vote – unless the minority policy of your current ruling party is free citizenship – this increased colonial migration could result in a shift in the voting patterns in your nation. However, it’s more likely that you won’t have much colonial migration regardless, even after Malthusian Thought, making the effect quite limited (if, indeed, your government system allows elections anyway).

Social Science – T4205 has three inventions that reduce the cost of social and/or political reforms. However, none of these inventions can fire before 1895, by which time you have often enacted most or all of the reforms that you intend to enact and are usually not short of cash anyway. As a result, the effect tends to be pretty underwhelming.

The commerce tech Management Strategy – T3405 converts all of your existing aristocrats to capitalists. Whilst this converts POPs which are naturally conservative (aristocrats) to POPs that are naturally liberal (capitalists) – politically an undesirable outcome in a monarchy or presidential dictatorship – the reality is that by the time you get Management Strategy you are usually heavily industrialised and your population mostly liberal anyway. Even in a monarchy or presidential dictatorship, the effect on your industry of the Management Strategy tech is far more important than the effect on your nation’s politics.

Finally, all of the techs in the Financial Institutions branch of the commerce tree increase the tax efficiency of all three classes of POPs, which may allow you to tax some classes less, and thus in turn help to reduce militancy and consciousness and also reduce the number of your POPs that might turn socialist.


Notes Concerning This Guide

Acknowledgements

This guide was originally written by oxmonsta. Some of the information regarding the effects of National Trauma and Revanchism presented in this guide is taken from posts by tyrel68 and Achab in the Victoria - General Discussions forum on the Paradox forums.

Discussion / Questions / Feedback / Additions

I would be quite keen to hear the thoughts of other posters regarding this guide. There are still some knowledge gaps at a couple of points in the guide, in particular:

  1. What are the actual effects, if any, of separatism?
  2. Does National Trauma have any other effects (perhaps increased War Exhaustion, for example)?