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Navy Inventions

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Complete list of all inventions linked to navy technologies (Victoria:Revolutions v2.01) Prerequisite inventions are shown in green.


Naval Hero Thesis

This was grounded in Jominian thought and later had its successor in Mahan. The basic idea was that the superiority of the leader and of the morale of the unit would break the back of the enemy and defeat her. Mahan theory was much more complex and held seeds to modern geopolitical though refind by McKinder.

Superior Crew Thesis

This was grounded in naval variants of Clausewitzian theory and it was later combined with elemnts written by Corbett. The basic idea was that the organization and training of the crew would break the back of the enemy and defeat her.

Long Range Fire Tactic

This tactics meant lying off the firing range of the enemy's guns and hitting them with longer ranging guns, or by quickly moving in to get off the guns and then quickly move out to be out of enemy range.

  • ID: 202
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Battleship Column Doctrine, Ironclads
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    DN, PDN, IC, MO, BB1-2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%
    DN, PDN, IC, MO, BB1-2, BC1-2: Gun Attack +2

Speedy Maneuvering Tactic

This tactics meant using speed to maneuver into firing position at a point where the enemy hard time to hit the ship, and also to make a breaking maneuver at an optimal time.

  • ID: 203
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Battleship Column Doctrine, Ironclads
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    DN, PDN, IC, MO, BB1-2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +10%
    DN, PDN, IC, MO, BB1-2, BC1-2: Defense +1

Sealane Hunters

This meant building a version that had good endurancy and acceleration and that could hunt merchant shipping in the major sealanes.

Fast Ship Killer

This meant building a version that where faster than the fast, but lighter than the heavy.

Big Ship Competitor

This meant building very small capital ships, thus this meant a smaller ship with clearly oversized main armament.

Standard Raider Group Doctrine

This doctrine enabled groups of ships to hunt and destroy in the sealanes.

Blue Water School

This meant building navies that could contest control of the High Seas. They included many capital ships and smaller ships to defend them.

Brown Water School

This meant building navies that defended home waters intensively while raiding the secondary lines of the enemy. It relied on a more diverse mix of ships than the Blue Water School, but it was also more cost efficient as it needed fewer expensive capital ships.

Offensive Attitude

This meant finding and destroying the enemy High Sea Navy at any cost.

  • ID: 210
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: High Sea Battle Fleet, NOT Defensive Attitude
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: Defense -1
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: Speed +1
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +10%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: Visibility +1
    Disables Inventions: Defensive Attitude

Defensive Attitude

This meant having a High Sea Navy as a fleet-in-being and only fighting the ultimate battle as a last resort or as a great opportunity.

  • ID: 211
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: High Sea Battle Fleet, NOT Offensive Attitude
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: Defense 1
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: MaxMorale -5%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: Speed -1
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: Visibility -1
    Disables Inventions: Offensive Attitude

Corvettes

This ship was the smallest of the three-masted woodeships and it only had one cannon deck. Its main tasks was to be the eyes and ears of the task force.

  • ID: 212
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Clipper Design
  • Years: 1836 - 1846
  • Effects:
    Activate units: CC

Steamer Transports

Steamer Transports are the replacement for clipper transports. They replaced the traditional sails with steam propulsion and therefore had much greater speed and reliability.

  • ID: 213
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Steamers
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    Activate units: S.Trans
    Deactivate units: C.Trans

Commerce Raiders

Commerce Raiders are usually commercial vessels re-equipped with guns and sometimes torpedoes that can out-run most military vessels and aim to disrupt enemy commercial shipping lanes.

  • ID: 214
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Steamers
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    Activate units: Raider

Ironclads

Ironclads are ships built of steel without the use of timber. They can therefore take much more hits than traditional wooden ships and were also faster, although more expensive and usually much smaller.

Monitors

Monitors are a significant improvement over the earlier ironclad ships. They were harder to spot, faster and more heavily armoured and armed.

Protected Cruisers

Cruisers are the evolution of the Man-o-War. They are less heavily armed and armoured than a battleship, but make up for that with greater speed.

  • ID: 217
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Steel Steamers, Ironclads
  • Years: 1870 - 1890
  • Effects:
    Activate units: PC
    Deactivate units: Raider, FR

Torpedo Boats

Torpedo Boats are cheap and numerous. They are equipped with Torpedoes to attack bigger ships like cruisers and battleships.

Destroyers

Destroyers are built mainly to combat the increasing threat from torpedo boats. They are equipped with several small-calibre gun turrets that can lay a barrage of shells in front of the small craft.

  • ID: 219
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Steel Steamers, Torpedo Boats
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    Activate units: DD
    Deactivate units: CC

Dreadnoughts

Dreadnoughts are the top-notch combat ship at the turn of the century. Equipped with several high-calibre guns, they can take quite some damage and still deal a crippling blow to the enemy fleet.

Light Cruisers

Light Cruisers are basically Cruisers with additional armaments. They are still not as heavily armoured as battleships and as a result still retain some of the extra speed.

Submarines

Submarines are small boats equipped with torpedoes and a gun. They are submergible, but to attack they still have to go to the surface.

Optical Rangefinders

This was instruments that made it possible to exactly measure the range from the gun to the enemy vessel and it vastly improved hit chances.

  • ID: 223
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Fire Control Systems
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    Gun Attack to-hit-chance +2

Gyrostabilized Fire Control

This inventions made fire control and corrections of hits much easier and faster and increased the speed of fire as well as the hit propability.

  • ID: 224
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Fire Control Systems
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    Gun Attack to-hit-chance +2

Torpedo Gyroscope

This invention turned torpedoes into reliable weapons. It vastly decreased torpedoes form malfunctioning by the movement of waterlayers.

  • ID: 225
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Fire Control Systems
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    Activate Torpedo Attack

Sea Mine Equipment

At this point efficienct equipment made it possible to make special vessels that could mine or remove mines from the sea. Mines limited the movement of the enemy and could be very dangerous especially at night or bad weather.

  • ID: 226
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Weapon Platforms
  • Years: 1880 - 1895
  • Effects:
    Activate units: ML, MS

Self-propelled Torpedoes

This new type of torpedo enabled a ship to fire and run. The torpedo would then travel toward its target on its own. They were though still only guided at the moment of firing so it was still tricky to hit.

Armour Piercing Projectiles

These projectile were specially developed to penetrate the thick armor plates of the capital ships. This invention opened up an evolution of new projectiles as a countermeasure to the ever increasing thickness of the plates.

  • ID: 228
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Weapon Platforms
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    Gun Attack to-hit-chance +2

Armour Piercing Exploding Projectiles

These projectile were specially developed to penetrate the thick armor plates of the capital ships. This invention opened up an evolution of new projectiles as a countermeasure to the ever increasing thickness of the plates.

Bomb Guns

These guns fired in a 45 degree angle and shot bombs which was to penetrate the deck of the enemy vessel. The deck was often less armoured than other parts.

Rifled Guns

This improvement of the guns made them shoot longer and with much better accuracy as the projectiles revolved around their centrepoint.

Armoured Turrets

By armouring the gun turrets the ship became less vulnerable to hits that made it unable to defend itself.

  • ID: 232
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Weapon Platforms, Ironclads
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, CL, PC, BB1-2, BC1-2, CA1-2: Defense +1

Quick-firing Guns

These new and smaller guns were mainly used to fight off small and fast ships attacking with torpedoes. Their rate of fire though soon showed that it would be profitable to introduces similar mechanisms for larger calibers.

  • ID: 233
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Main Armament, Rifled Guns
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    Gun Attack to-hit-chance +1

Armoured Citadels

These were huge armored platforms containing several guns which became less vulnerable to hits that could make the ship unable to defend itself.

Heavy Caliber Guns

At this point a new evolution in the caliber of guns had happened. The new behemots of massdestruction could smash through the armour of everything but the largest of capital ships.

  • ID: 235
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Main Armament, Rifled Guns
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, BB1-2, BC1-2: Gun Attack +2

On-Board Recon Aircraft

By adding small flying machines on top of the turrets the ship could get much better reconnaissance. Later on these aircraft would be equipped with machineguns and bombs and eventually become dive bombers.

Gun Hydraulics

By adding hydraulics the gun turrets could be moved quicker and thus aiming took less time, but also the reloading system could be mechanized by hydraulics which made firing speed faster.

Heavy Armour Plates

By adding extra heavy armor plates to the ship it not only got better protection, but it also gave extra protection against special ordonnance as armor piercing projectiles and torpedoes.

  • ID: 238
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Advanced Naval Design
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects:
    PDN, BC1-2: Defense +1
    DN, BB1-2: Defense +2

Large Hull Form

By making the hull bigger and broader the ship could be equipped with bigger guns and also bigger machinery without loosing stability. The better engines also compensated for the increased weight of the ship.

  • ID: 239
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Advanced Naval Design
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects of Choice A (Broad Hull Form):
    PDN, DN, BB1-2, BC1-2: Defense +1
  • Effects of Choice B (Slim Hull Form):
    PDN, DN, BB1-2, BC1-2: Gun Attack +1

Night Training

By training large formations at night the preformance of the naval units under harsh conditions improved and made naval leaders better accustomed to the special tactical situations at night or in fog.

  • ID: 240
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Plans, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA1-2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Night Training

By training large formations at night the preformance of the naval units under harsh conditions improved and made naval leaders better accustomed to the special tactical situations at night or in fog.

  • ID: 241
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Plans, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Enemy Plotting Cards

These cards held the full performance and picture of each enemy ship class. This made it easier to know what one was fighting, what its maximum speed was, its main armament etc. This made it much easier to make decisions both on the bridge and out on the combat stations.

  • ID: 242
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Plans, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Enemy Plotting Cards

These cards held the full performance and picture of each enemy ship class. This made it easier to know what one was fighting, what its maximum speed was, its main armament etc. This made it much easier to make decisions both on the bridge and out on the combat stations.

  • ID: 243
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Plans, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Target Hit Profile Analysis

This was a analysis of the attributes of the enemy target to see where to hit and with what type of ammunition to get the best effect.

  • ID: 244
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Plans, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Target Hit Profile Analysis

This was a analysis of the attributes of the enemy target to see where to hit and with what type of ammunition to get the best effect.

  • ID: 245
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Plans, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Hit Evaluation Reports

By introducing a system where at least one man at each gun and forward observers reported the effects of barrages, the hit probability increased considerably.

  • ID: 246
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Statistics, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Hit Evaluation Reports

By introducing a system where at least on at each gun, and sometimes at other locations, reported the effect of the shot made the next shot more effective.

  • ID: 247
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Statistics, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Empirical Interdiction Reports

By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to interdict the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy interdictions.

  • ID: 248
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Statistics, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Empirical Interdiction Reports

By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to interdict the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy interdictions.

  • ID: 249
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Statistics, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Naval Strike Success Criterium

By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to strike at the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy strikes.

  • ID: 250
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Statistics, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Naval Strike Success Criterium

By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to strike at the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy strikes.

  • ID: 251
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Statistics, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Underway Refueling

By introducing special supply vessels naval units could replenish at sea and thus get their endurance vastly improved.

Underway Refueling

By introducing special supply vessels naval units could replenish at sea and thus get their endurance vastly improved.

Ammunition Conservation System

This was the combination of premeasured firing speed and area hit differentiators. It enabled the gun to fire optimized to get the best hit picture at the lowest ammunition usage rates.

Ammunition Conservation System

This was the combination of premeasured firing speed and area hit differentiators. It enabled the gun to fire optimized to get the best hit picture at the lowest ammunition usage rates.

  • ID: 255
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Logistics, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Radio Telegraphy

The introduction of radio telegraphy revolutionized the mobility at sea as ships no longer needed to wait for orders to come by other ships or by flag signaling.

  • ID: 256
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Logistics, Electricity, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Radio Telegraphy

The introduction of radio telegraphy revolutionized the mobility at sea as ships no longer needed to wait for orders to come by other ships or by flag signaling.

  • ID: 257
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Logistics, Electricity, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Political Lobbying

By having high ranking officers attending politicians and being experts in defense commissions etc the Navy could easily have a strong influence over the political decisions concerning the defense and the security policy.

Political Lobbying

By having high ranking officers attending politicians and being experts in defense commissions etc the Navy could easily have a strong influence over the political decisions concerning the defense and the security policy.

Military-Political Decision-making

In wartime an influential Navy that had lobbied for their cause for a long time could get full control not only over the excecutiion of the war, but also over the resource management of the country. This could basically be called a Military Dictatorship governed by the Admirality.

Military-Political Decision-making

In wartime an influential Navy that had lobbied for their cause for a long time could get full control not only over the excecution of the war, but also over the resource management of the country. This could basically be called a Military Dictatorship governed by the Admirality.

Local Military Government

In a highly militarized society, or a normal society in war, often needed not only military-civilian cooperation boards on a local level, but sometimes most of the local government could be appointed officers. This meant not only a strong military control, but also that the power of the Navy increased disproportionaly in comparison to other governmental agencies.

Local Military Government

In a highly militarized society, or a normal society in war, often needed not only military-civilian cooperation boards on a local level, but sometimes most of the local government could be appointed officers. This meant not only a strong military control, but also that the power of the Navy increased disproportionaly in comparison to other governmental agencies.

Academic Training

This meant that to be come an officer it was no longer enough to be of gentle blood. You also had to attend a formal education which could at best be as good as any college. This was one of the most important causes behind the professionalization of the officers corps.

  • ID: 264
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Professionalism, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Academic Training

This meant that to be come an officer it was no longer enough to be of gentle blood. You also had to attend a formal education which could at best be as good as any college. This was one of the most important causes behind the professionalization of the officers corps.

  • ID: 265
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Professionalism, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Combat Station Training

As war at sea became more and more mechanized combat station training became more important. Often this training was done under realistic conditions where two squadrons fought an imaginary sea battle.

  • ID: 266
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Professionalism, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Combat Station Training

As war at sea became more and more mechanized combat station training became more important. Often this training was done under realistic conditions where two squadrons fought an imaginary sea battle.

  • ID: 267
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Professionalism, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Societal Status

At this time the professionalization of the officer corps and the fact the the majority of it consisted of middle class men rather than gentry increased its societal status.

  • ID: 268
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Professionalism, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Societal Status

At this time the professionalization of the officer corps and the fact the the majority of it consisted of middle class men rather than gentry increased its societal status.

  • ID: 269
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Professionalism, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Independent Command

The old rules said that a officer breaking an order of a higher officer was to be brought to court martial. This made decision-making very indecisive. At this point regulations said that an officer was to carry on the core idea of the order of his superior officer, but how was at his own discretion.

  • ID: 270
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Decision Making, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Independent Command

The old rules said that a officer breaking an order of a higher officer was to be brought to court martial. This made decision-making very indecisive. At this point regulations said that an officer was to carry on the core idea of the order of his superior officer, but how was at his own discretion.

  • ID: 271
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Decision Making, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Continuous Issuing of Orders

By using a staff system even at low echelon units it enabled the leader to give orders continuously and accurate.

  • ID: 272
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Decision Making, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Continuous Issuing of Orders

By using a staff system even at low echelon units it enabled the leader to give orders continuously and accurate.

  • ID: 273
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Decision Making, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Delegated Power

This meant that an officer could temporary delegate authority to one or more of his subordinates when come to clearly defined areas of responibilities. This meant that he did not have to control everything himself at all times and that he could focus on the important questions.

  • ID: 274
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Decision Making, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Delegated Power

This meant that an officer could temporary delegate authority to one or more of his subordinates when come to clearly defined areas of responibilities. This meant that he did not have to control everything himself at all times and that he could focus on the important questions.

  • ID: 275
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Decision Making, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1860 - 1875
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Wargames

The wargames where staff training. It meant playing out a situation, a fictive war of conflict, and setting to staffs against eachother and training them in order writing, communications and planning. At some degree it also trained their tactical and operational skill.

  • ID: 276
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Risk Management, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Wargames

The wargames where staff training. It meant playing out a situation, a fictive war of conflict, and setting to staffs against eachother and training them in order writing, communications and planning. At some degree it also trained their tactical and operational skill.

  • ID: 277
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Risk Management, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Alternative Plans

By letting the staff produce several alternative plans the best alternative be discerned faster by the commander. Also if things changed the commander and his staff always had an alternative to go for quickly.

  • ID: 278
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Risk Management, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Alternative Plans

By letting the staff produce several alternative plans the best alternative be discerned faster by the commander. Also if things changed the commander and his staff always had an alternative to go for quickly.

  • ID: 279
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Risk Management, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Saddle Orders

This was the ability to give good order fast and under heavy stress. This was trained, and of course when possible learnt through experience.

  • ID: 280
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Risk Management, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Saddle Orders

This was the ability to give good order fast and under heavy stress. This was trained, and of course when possible learnt through experience.

  • ID: 281
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Risk Management, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Literate NCOs

When literate NCOs started to flock to the ranks the average quality of the units and the training of the soldiers increased.

  • ID: 282
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval NCO Training, Naval Hero Thesis, Academic Training (1), "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

Literate NCOs

When literate NCOs started to flock to the ranks the average quality of the units and the training of the soldiers increased.

NCO Combat Station Training

By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with the equipment these not only became pioneers for the men, but also highly competent trainers of the smaller units.

  • ID: 284
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval NCO Training, Naval Hero Thesis, Combat Station Training (1), "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

NCO Combat Station Training

By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with the equipment these not only became pioneers for the men, but also highly competent trainers of the smaller units.

NCO Tactical Training

By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with tactical situations these not only became the leaders of the men, but also the initiative takers in combat.

  • ID: 286
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval NCO Training, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxMorale +5%

NCO Tactical Training

By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with tactical situations these not only became the leaders of the men, but also the initiative takers in combat.100

  • ID: 287
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval NCO Training, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1895 - 1910
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Pre-Dreadnought

Pre-Dreadnoughts are large ships equipped with sufficent armour to take several hits as well as a high-calibre guns.

  • ID: 288
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Steel Steamers, Ironclads
  • Years: 1880 - 1890
  • Effects:
    Activate units: PDN
    Deactivate units: IC, MO

Decisive Firepower Doctrine

With the advent of the modern all-big-gun battleship, not surprisingly many admirals focussed on the importance of concentrating as many such battleships together in a single main fleet as possible, with the objective of seeking out the enemy's main fleet and engaging them in a single decisive battle. In this view, the vital point of battle was to have the most and largest main armament, in order to batter the opposition into submission.

  • ID: 289
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Doctrine
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Gun Attack to-hit-chance +2

Naval Firepower Doctrine

While a focus on winning the decisive naval battle was important, it was also considered valuable to use a variety of weaponry in order to achieve victory, in addition to the main armament of capital ships. Lighter warships were also important, as they could dart in and launch deadly torpedo attacks, while secondary armament was necessary to defend against these attacks. A balanced fleet of both capital and escort ships was essential to victory in modern naval combat.

  • ID: 290
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Doctrine
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Gun Attack to-hit-chance +2

Fleet Auxiliary CV Doctrine

Even after the first aircraft carriers were completed, the focus remained on surface combat between capital ships. The role of carriers was limited to supporting engagements between capital ships, such as aerial reconnaissance and attacking damaged enemy warships after battle, as opposed to seeking out battle on their own.

  • ID: 291
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Doctrine
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    CV1-3: MaxOrg +1%

Fleet Auxiliary SS Doctrine

Early submarine use centred around supporting combat operations by surface ships, as opposed to sortieing on their own to attack enemy shipping. For example, a squadron might be despatched to engage an enemy squadron, and while acting as if they are retreating, attempt to draw the enemy squadron into an area containing pre-positioned submarines so that the submarines could launch torpedo attacks on the unsuspecting enemy.

  • ID: 292
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Doctrine
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Torpedo Attack to-hit-chance +2

Convoy Sailing

Traditionally in wartime, merchant shipping had continued to sail individually and without escort, in the belief that the most effective way of defending merchant shipping was through the use of squadrons hunting down enemy raiders. However, with the proliferation of enemy raiders, and the rise of the submarine, it became increasingly clear that having merchant ships sail together would make them much easer to defend with escorts.

Integrated Naval Doctrine

The proliferation of new warships like the aircraft carrier and the submarine required modern navies to increasingly focus on which approach they would take to naval warfare. The Fleet-in-Being school argued in favour of defending sea lanes using traditional surface warships, while the Base Strike school took a more offensive approach, emphasizing the role of carriers, and the Sealane Interdiction school argued for attacking enemy sealanes with surface raiders and submarines.


Advanced Destroyers

The evolution of the submarine into a potent threat to warships and merchant ships alike resulted in the evolution of destroyers to assume the primary role for defending against them, as opposed to their former role of defending the main battle fleet from torpedo boats. Thus the first years after the First World War saw improvements in destroyer design that aimed to enhance their ability to find and sink submarines, such as the implementation and refinement of SONAR.

Modern Destroyers

The late interwar period saw destroyers increase in size as well as the number of roles they could fulfil, including countering the increasing threat from aircraft, with the introduction of specific anti-aircraft armament.

Advanced Cruisers

By the early 1920s cruiser design focussed on two main types: light cruisers, generally with 6-inch main armament, and heavy cruisers, generally with 8-inch main armament. Their primary roles were fleet support in combination with destroyers, defence of sea lanes, and raiding.

Modern Cruisers

Further refinements of cruiser design in the interwar period including increases in armour and in the number of guns, both main and anti-aircraft armament.

Battlecruisers

Even as the first Dreadnoughts were being constructed, significant interest was shown in a warship that could combine the main armament of a Dreadnought with the speed of Cruisers. Thus was born the battlecruiser, a powerful warship able to scout ahead of the main fleet and strong enough to sink any warship other than a battleship, though its weak armour would be a significant drawback.

Modern Battlecruisers

Battlecruiser design underwent a brief renaissance in the 1930s as several naval powers built new battlecruisers designed either to raid enemy shipping or to hunt down and sink enemy commerce raiders. Better armour protection was achieved without a significant reduction in speed, and presaged the future development of the fast battleship.

Naval Hero Thesis vs Superior Crew Thesis

With the Post Nelsonian Ideas developing in our Navy, our military thinkers have divided themselves into two camps. Those who favour the Naval Hero Thesis and those who favour the Superior Crew Thesis. We need to choose which we favour.

  • ID: 580
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Post-Nelsonian Thought
  • Years: 1836 - 1935
  • Effects of Choice A (The Naval Hero Thesis)
    Sets army doctrines to "Naval Hero Thesis"
  • Effects of Choice B (The Superior Crew Thesis)
    Sets army doctrines to "Superior Crew Thesis"

Naval Exercises

A critical component of training for war at sea were naval exercises, in which ships would engage in mock-battles and other realistic training missions so as to understand how to act under wartime conditions. These exercises could involve entire fleets and stretch over days if not weeks, and were important not just for the training they gave, but also for the evaluation of the abilities under pressure of officers and sailors themselves.

  • ID: 581
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Training, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Naval Exercises

A critical component of training for war at sea were naval exercises, in which ships would engage in mock-battles and other realistic training missions so as to understand how to act under wartime conditions. These exercises could involve entire fleets and stretch over days if not weeks, and were important not just for the training they gave, but also for the evaluation of the abilities under pressure of officers and sailors themselves.

  • ID: 582
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Training, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Amphibious Warfare Training

The experiences of the First World War had demonstrated not only the potential of large-scale amphibious warfare, but also the limitations of current practices and equipment. As such, in the interwar period the major powers worked to increase their capability to launch effective amphibious assaults. These efforts included not only the development of needed equipment, such as purpose-built landing craft, but also the creation and training of land units specializing in amphibious assaults, and the creation of specific naval strategies and tactics to best utilize warships in support and defence of amphibious operations.

  • ID: 583
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Training, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Amphibious Warfare Training

The experiences of the First World War had demonstrated not only the potential of large-scale amphibious warfare, but also the limitations of current practices and equipment. As such, in the interwar period the major powers worked to increase their capability to launch effective amphibious assaults. These efforts included not only the development of needed equipment, such as purpose-built landing craft, but also the creation and training of land units specializing in amphibious assaults, and the creation of specific naval strategies and tactics to best utilize warships in support and defence of amphibious operations.

  • ID: 584
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Training, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

Combined Arms Planning

In the aftermath of the First World War, the major powers put an increasing emphasis on what came to be known as combined operations. This represented the utilization of land, sea, and air forces together to achieve a single strategic objective. Often revolving around amphibious operations, combined operations often fit within larger naval strategic objectives, including the destruction of enemy naval assets and the securing of sealanes. No longer could navies operate in isolation from the other branches of the military, and the development of new tactics was required to integrate naval warfare into the larger strategic perspective.

  • ID: 585
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Integration, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

Combined Arms Planning

In the aftermath of the First World War, the major powers put an increasing emphasis on what came to be known as combined operations. This represented the utilization of land, sea, and air forces together to achieve a single strategic objective. Often revolving around amphibious operations, combined operations often fit within larger naval strategic objectives, including the destruction of enemy naval assets and the securing of sealanes. No longer could navies operate in isolation from the other branches of the military, and the development of new tactics was required to integrate naval warfare into the larger strategic perspective.

  • ID: 586
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Integration, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

War Gaming

The use of war games to plan and prepare for war is as old as warfare itself, and includes such hallmarks as chess. However, serious analytical naval war gaming emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Major naval powers would use detailed gaming systems that took account of such variables as a ship's armour, speed, and the number and caliber of guns in order to determine battle damage and the ultimate victor. These naval war games were used to test strategic plans, and different means of countering potential enemy strategies and warships.

  • ID: 587
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Integration, Superior Crew Thesis, "Superior Crew Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +2%

War Gamming

The use of war games to plan and prepare for war is as old as warfare itself, and includes such hallmarks as chess. However, serious analytical naval war gaming emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Major naval powers would use detailed gaming systems that took account of such variables as a ship's armour, speed, and the number and caliber of guns in order to determine battle damage and the ultimate victor. These naval war games were used to test strategic plans, and different means of countering potential enemy strategies and warships.

  • ID: 588
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Naval Integration, Naval Hero Thesis, "Naval Hero Thesis" nations only
  • Years: 1850 - 1860
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, MO, IC, MW, CL, PC, Raider, FR, SS, CV1-3, BB1-2, CA2, BC1-2: MaxOrg +1%

15-inch Main Armament

The main armament of the first dreadnoughts consisted in most cases of 12-inch or 13.5-inch guns, but modern navies soon began to desire a larger calibre main armament. This resulted in later battleships being armed with 15-inch or 16-inch main guns, which had significantly greater destructive power and range than their predecessors.

  • ID: 589
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Design
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, BB1-2, BC1-2: Gun Attack +2

Advanced Fire Control

Advances in main armament and warship construction resulted in capital ships with more and larger main guns, capable of firing shells over great distances. It became increasingly important to simultaneously develop advanced methods of measuring where shells landed and deriving from these observations accurate measurements of where the main guns should be aimed in order to achieve hits on enemy warships.

  • ID: 590
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Design
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Gun Attack to-hit-chance +1

Wireless

An important development in naval warfare in the early-20th century was the wireless, or radio communications. This allowed naval headquarters to communicate with fleets at sea in order to give updated orders, and also allowed admirals to communicate much more effectively with individual warships in their fleets, in comparison with older methods such as signal flags. However, one drawback of wireless was that it was also possible for the enemy to listen in on wireless communications, and soon the major navies would establish organizations to glean valuable intelligence from enemy communications.

  • ID: 591
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Modern Naval Design
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    PDN, DN, CL, BB1-2, BC1-2: Sea Detection Capability +2

Advanced Submarines

The lessons learned from submarine warfare during the First World War were applied to submarine construction in the 1920s and 1930s, further enhancing the submarine as a weapon of naval warfare.

Ocean-Going Submarines

Submarine design continued to improve in the early 20th-century, to the point where submarines became able to spend significant amounts of time at sea, allowing them to intercept enemy warships and shipping at a significant distance from home bases.

Purpose-Built Carriers

Taking the lessons of earlier carrier designs, navies began to design and built carriers from scratch, which allowed for a range of improvements, from capacity to flight deck armour, anti-aircraft defenses, and advanced damage control. It would be these purpose-built carriers that would finally be capable of demonstrating beyond any doubt the power and decisiveness of carrier warfare.

Converted-Hulk Carriers

The next stage in carrier construction was to use the hulls of larger warships, such as battleships and battlecruisers, to build larger carriers. These carriers had a much larger aircraft capacity and were the first to be truly capable of independent operations, but they were still limited by their origins as converted-hull carriers.

Experimental Carriers

The first experiments at flying aircraft off of warships often consisted of a small flight deck attached to an existing warship. Once these experiments had demonstrated the viability of aircraft taking off of and landing on ships at sea, navies began to convert small hulls to launch aircraft. These experimental carriers refined the basic techniques of carrier operations and demonstrated the potential of carrier warfare, but they were too small to have a decisive impact on naval combat on their own.

  • ID: 596
  • Prerequisite Techs/ Inventions: Oil-Driven Ships
  • Years: 1919 - 1935
  • Effects:
    Activate units: CV1

Modern Battleships

A new generation of battleships was designed in the 1930s, which included improved armament, particularly with respect to anti-aircraft armament, enhanced armour protection, and an increased speed of on average 28 knots.

Advanced Battleships

The experiences of the First World War lead to a series of design improvements for battleships, including a more effective use of armour protection to defend against plunging fire, improved protection against torpedoes, the widespread use of oil-driven propulsion, and further refinements in armament and fire control. Though few battleships were constructed in the first years after the First World War, due to economic constraints and treaty limitations, existing battleships were refitted to incorporate these advances in design.

Advanced Battlecruisers

In the immediate aftermath of the First World War, many battlecruisers under construction were scrapped or converted to aircraft cruisers. Those battlecruisers that remained were refitted with improved main armament and enhanced armour protection.


Contents

Unit Abbreviations

BB1 (Advanced Battleship)
BB2 (Modern Battleship)
BC1 (Battlecruiser)
BC2 (Advanced Battlecruiser)
C.Trans (Clipper Transport)
CA1 (Advanced Cruiser)
CA2 (Modern Cruiser)
CC (Corvettes; 'Brigade')
CL (Light Cruiser)
CV1 (Experimental Carrier)
CV2 (Converted-Hulk Carrier)
CV3 (Purpose-Built Carrier)
DD (Destroyers; 'Brigade')
DN (Dreadnought)
FR (Frigate)
FTR (Fighter Squadron; 'Brigade')
IC (Ironclad)
ML (Minelayers; 'Brigade')
MO (Monitor)
MS (Minesweepers; 'Brigade')
MW (Man-o-War)
PC (Protected Cruiser)
PDN (Pre-Dreadnought Battleship)
Raider (Commerce Raider)
S.Trans (Steamer Transport)
SS (Submarines)
TAC (Bomber Squadron; 'Brigade')
TB (Torpedo Boats; 'Brigade')